Free Culture - How Big Media Uses Technology and the Law to Lock Down Culture and Control Creativity
Lawrence Lessig (2004-03-25)

Book Index

1984 (Orwell) 444

60 Minutes 429, 452

ABC 695-696

academic journals 1103, 1166-1173

Adobe eBook Reader 611-613

advertising 147, 185, 291, 514, 596-598, 709-713

Africa, medications for HIV patients in 1082-1097

Agee, Michael 930-932, 937

Aibo robotic dog 640-646, 654-655, 662, 673-674

AIDS medications 1082-1097

air traffic, land ownership vs. 19-27

Akerlof, George 972

Alben, Alex 406-433, 431, 833-835, 1236

alcohol prohibition 841-842

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (Caroll) 633-637

All in the Family 695, 699

Allen, Paul 406

Amazon 1155-1156

American Association of Law Libraries 970

American Graphophone Company 233

Andromeda 850

Anello, Douglas 252

animated cartoons 89-104

antiretroviral drugs 1082-1097

Apple Corporation 849-850, 1108, 1269

architecture, constraint effected through 496, 499, 507-508

archive.org 458,
see also Internet Archive, 458

archives 739,
digital, 739

archives, digital 441-470, 920, 947-951

Aristotle 621

Armstrong, Edwin Howard 27-41, 772, 823-825

Arrow, Kenneth 972

art, underground 779

artists 215, 244, 318, 407, 819, 827, 833, 1265,
recording industry payments to, 215, 244, 318, 819, 827, 833, 1265,
retrospective collections on, 407

ASCAP 81

Asia, commercial piracy in 266-269, 272, 275, 1270

AT&T 39

Ayer, Don 963, 993-995, 1007, 1031, 1045

Bacon, Francis 380

Barish, Stephanie 156-158, 190

Barlow, Joel 45

Barnes & Noble 602

Barry, Hank 792, 803

BBC 1137

Beatles 237

Becket, Thomas 376

Bell, Alexander Graham 27

Berne Convention (1908) 1053

Bernstein, Leonard 308

Betamax 321-323

biomedical research 1103

Black, Jane 302

blogs (Web-logs) 166-168, 172-182

BMG 685

BMW 803-804

Boies, David 431

Boland, Lois 1113-1123

Bolling, Ruben 1040-1042

Bono, Mary 885

Bono, Sonny 885

books 307, 307, 307, 345, 463, 468, 547, 579, 588, 610, 1183, 1258,
English copyright law developed for, 345,
free on-line releases of, 307, 1183,
on Internet, 588, 610,
out of print, 307, 463, 547, 1258,
resales of, 307, 547, 1258,
three types of uses of, 579,
total number of, 468

booksellers, English 360-385

Boswell, James 369

bots 442-443, 678

Boyle, James 524

Braithwait, John 1120

Branagh, Kenneth 346, 357

Brandeis, Louis 139

Brazil, free culture in 1137

Breyer, Stephen 982, 984, 1024-1025

Brezhnev, Leonid 515

British Parliament 348, 351-353, 362-366, 374-376, 385

broadcast flag 811

Bromberg, Dan 963

Brown, John Seely 183-196, 513

browsing 597, 602, 1152-1156

Buchanan, James 972

Bunyan, John 380

Burdick, Quentin 252

cable television 249-261, 319-320, 685, 687-689, 1270

camera technology 131-137, 139-141, 142-148, 514

Camp Chaos 433

cars, MP3 sound systems in 803-804

Carson, Rachel 522

cartoon films 89-105

Casablanca 607-608

cassette recording 297-298, 321, 327, 664, 816, 1249,
VCRs, 321, 327, 664, 816, 1249

Causby, Thomas Lee 21, 26, 41, 49, 59-60, 67, 1079

Causby, Tinie 21, 26, 41, 49, 59-60, 67, 1079

CBS 696

CD-ROMs, film clips used in 407-428

CDs 266, 272, 301, 302, 796, 851, 1214, 1269,
copyright marking of, 1214,
foreign piracy of, 266, 272,
mix technology and, 851,
preference data on, 796,
prices of, 302, 1269,
sales levels of, 301

cell phones, music streamed over 1254

chimeras 752-759

Christensen, Clayton M. 703

circumvention technologies 655, 661-674

civil liberties 858-869

CNN 179

Coase, Ronald 972

Code (Lessig) 491

CodePink Women for Peace 1129

Coe, Brian 133, 135

comics, Japanese 105-113, 113, 122

commerce, interstate 909-912, 987

Commerce, U.S. Department of 511

commercials 147, 185, 514, 709-713

common law 350, 366, 370-373, 377-380

composers, copyright protections of 226-236, 318

compulsory license 235-239

computer games 150

Conger 347, 351, 360, 369-370

Congress 887,
constitutional powers of, 887

Congress, U.S. 233, 260, 318, 319, 323, 327, 529, 541, 548, 811, 813, 827, 827, 884, 898, 906, 908, 909, 914, 953, 955, 974, 979, 981, 987, 987, 998, 1013, 1230, 1234,
challenge of CTEA legislation of, 955,
constitutional powers of, 909, 974, 979, 998, 1013,
copyright terms extended by, 548, 884, 906, 953, 987,
in constitutional Progress Clause, 529, 987,
lobbying of, 898,
on cable television, 260, 319,
on copyright laws, 233, 260, 318, 323, 327, 541, 548, 811, 813, 827, 1230, 1234,
on derivative rights, 1230, 1234,
on radio, 827,
on recording industry, 233, 318, 827,
on VCR technology, 323, 327,
Supreme Court restraint on, 908, 914, 981

Conrad, Paul 664, 667, 673

Constitution, U.S. 55, 484, 485, 517, 528, 533, 584, 713, 887, 907, 913, 915, 916, 953, 964, 969, 974, 978, 987, 1028, 1029, 1029, 1032,
Commerce Clause of, 913, 974, 1029,
copyright purpose established in, 528, 915, 916,
Fifth Amendment to, 485,
First Amendment to, 55, 517, 584, 713, 953, 964, 978, 1032,
on creative property, 484, 528,
originalist interpretation of, 1028,
Progress Clause of, 528, 887, 907, 913, 969, 987, 1029,
structural checks and balances of, 533,
Takings Clause of, 485

cookies, Internet 1155

copyright 101, 339, 348, 352, 360, 363, 372, 379, 504, 528, 528, 535, 540, 543, 552, 555, 559, 587, 599, 715, 722, 736, 738, 884, 885, 913, 915, 916, 917, 923, 1025, 1039, 1050, 1141, 1145, 1174, 1197, 1203, 1208, 1218, 1220, 1224, 1233, 1235, 1236, 1239,
as narrow monopoly right, 352,
as property, 339, 738,
constitutional purpose of, 528, 915, 916,
Creative Commons licenses for material in, 1174,
duration of, 101, 348, 360, 528, 528, 540, 736, 884, 913, 915, 917, 1218, 1233,
four regulatory modalities on, 504, 535,
in perpetuity, 363, 372, 379, 722, 885, 1025, 1039,
marking of, 559, 1197, 1208,
no registration of works, 923, 1050,
of natural authors vs. corporations, 552,
renewability of, 348, 543, 1203, 1220, 1224,
scope of, 555, 715, 1235,
statutory licenses in, 1236, 1239,
usage restrictions attached to, 587, 599,
voluntary reform efforts on, 1141, 1145

Copyright Act (1790) 541-544, 563-564

copyright infringement lawsuits 207, 207, 209, 315, 321, 599, 757, 761, 778, 783, 799, 803, 839, 863, 1136, 1260,
against student file sharing, 207, 757,
distribution technology targeted in, 321, 799, 803,
exaggerated claims of, 209, 757, 778, 783, 799, 863,
in recording industry, 207, 757, 778, 799, 839, 1136,
individual defendants intimidated by, 209, 778, 783, 839, 1136,
statutory damages of, 209,
statutory licenses in, 1260,
willful infringement findings in, 599,
zero tolerance in, 315, 761

Copyright infringement lawsuits 47,
commercial creativity as primary purpose of, 47

copyright law 83, 86, 110, 113, 122, 226, 231, 233, 252, 266, 272, 318, 319, 320, 345, 386, 435, 440, 488, 491, 524, 532, 548, 557, 559, 561, 564, 574, 579, 582, 593, 594, 598, 598, 606, 611, 655, 662, 673, 724, 727, 727, 738, 755, 757, 762, 763, 773, 780, 782, 788, 801, 816, 819, 836, 851, 854, 884, 886, 907, 908, 928, 953, 1046, 1051, 1178, 1191, 1194, 1202, 1203, 1214, 1223, 1228, 1281,
as ex post regulation modality, 491,
as protection of creators, 532, 854,
authors vs. composers, 231,
circumvention technology banned by, 655,
commercial creativity as primary purpose of, 854,
copies as core issue of, 574, 579, 598, 727,
creativity impeded by, 86, 773,
development of, 345,
English, 345,
European, 561, 1051,
fair use and, 386, 440, 582, 594, 598, 662, 673, 738, 782, 1178, 1223,
felony for infringement of, 928,
felony punishment for infringement of, 755, 757, 886,
formalities reinstated in, 1194,
government reforms proposed on, 1191,
history of American, 532, 724,
illegal behavior as broad response to, 836,
innovation hampered by, 788,
innovative freedom balanced with fair compensation in, 320, 488, 524, 738,
international compliance with, 266,
Japanese, 110, 113, 122,
lawyers as detriment to, 1223, 1281,
malpractice lawsuits against lawyers advising on, 801,
on cable television rebroadcasting, 252, 319,
on music recordings, 226, 318, 763, 819, 1214,
on republishing vs. transformation of original work, 83, 557, 564, 593, 724, 1228,
registration requirement of, 559, 727, 1046, 1202, 1203, 1214,
royalty proposal on derivative reuse in, 435,
scope of, 574,
statutory licenses in, 233, 272, 318, 816,
Supreme Court case on term extension of, 908, 953,
technology as automatic enforcer of, 606, 611, 762, 780, 851,
term extensions in, 548, 884, 907, 953,
two central goals of, 320

Copyright law 55, 73,
as protection of creators, 55,
English, 73

Copyright Office 1065, 1204, 1207, 1213-1214

corporations 552, 1095,
copyright terms for, 552,
in pharmaceutical industry, 1095

Country of the Blind, The (Wells) 743-751

Court of Appeals 324, 431, 956, 968, 986,
D.C. Circuit, 956, 968, 986,
Ninth Circuit, 324, 431

cover songs 234

Creative Commons 1137, 1174-1190

creative property 81, 220, 231, 460, 469, 477, 479, 528, 541, 575,
common law protections of, 541,
constitutional tradition on, 479, 528,
noncommercial second life of, 460, 469,
of authors vs. composers, 231,
other property rights vs., 477, 575,
“if value, then right” theory of, 81, 220

creativity 83, 97, 108, 773,
by transforming previous works, 97, 108,
legal restrictions on, 83, 773

Crichton, Michael 150

criminal justice system 707

culture 45, 441, 724, 739, 940, 947,
archives of, 441, 739, 947,
commercial vs. noncommercial, 45, 724, 940

culture archives of 739

Cyber Rights (Godwin) 163

D.C. Court of Appeals 956-957, 968, 986

Daguerre, Louis 129

Daley, Elizabeth 150-156, 159-162, 190

Data General 1158

Day After Trinity, The 397

DDT 520-526

Dean, Howard 174

democracy 136, 142, 168, 169, 179, 182, 702, 775, 1268,
digital sharing within, 775,
in technologies of expression, 136, 142, 168, 179,
media concentration and, 702,
public discourse in, 169, 182,
semiotic, 1268

Democratic Party 1049

derivative works 96, 105, 435, 557, 564, 579, 590, 594, 724, 730, 1230,
fair use vs., 594,
historical shift in copyright coverage of, 557, 724,
piracy vs., 96, 105, 564, 579,
reform copyright term and scope on, 1230,
royalty system proposed for, 435,
technological developments and, 590, 730

developing countries, foreign patent costs in 268-271, 1082-1097

digital cameras 143, 514

Digital Copyright (Litman) 816

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) 655-662, 667-669, 673, 763

Diller, Barry 700-701

DirectTV 689

Disney, Inc. 97-103, 321, 473, 598-601, 906, 967,
Sony Betamax technology opposed by, 321

Disney, Walt 90-95, 104, 109-110, 120-125, 138-139, 332, 469, 571, 881-882, 915

DMCA (Digital Millennium Copyright Act) 655-662, 667-669, 673, 763

Doctorow, Cory 310, 1182

doctors malpractice claims against 778

documentary film 386-408

domain names 1206

Donaldson v. Beckett 377-385

Donaldson, Alexander 368-371, 375-380

Douglas, William O. 22-24

doujinshi comics 108-116, 122-123

Down and Out in the Magic Kingdom (Doctorow) 310, 1182

Drahos, Peter 1120

DreamWorks 437-439

Dreyfus, Rochelle 81

driving speed, constraints on 499-500, 868

Drucker, Peter 421

drugs 707, 841, 868, 1082, 1116,
illegal, 707, 841, 868,
pharmaceutical, 1082, 1116

Duck and Cover film 458

DVDs 273, 302,
piracy of, 273,
price of, 302

Dylan, Bob 1136

e-books 590-595, 611-638

e-mail 172

Eagle Forum 967-969

Eastman, George 131-143

Eastwood, Clint 407-422, 1236

Edison, Thomas 27, 224-229, 296, 332

education 144, 185, 206,
in media literacy, 144,
tinkering as means of, 185, 206

Eldred Act 1047-1070, 1074-1077

Eldred v. Ashcroft 916, 953-1079, 1220

Eldred, Eric 878-888, 907, 915-917, 917, 960, 1047

elections 168-169

electoral college 488, 533

Electronic Frontier Foundation 858

Else, Jon 386-408, 782

EMI 685, 803

Eminem 1136

eMusic.com 763-767

encryption systems 648-653

England, copyright laws developed in 345-385

Enlightenment 361

environmentalism 522-526

ephemeral films 458

Erskine, Andrew 369

ethics 842

expression, technologies of 136, 142, 144, 168, 179,
democratic, 136, 142, 168, 179,
media literacy and, 144

fair use 386, 440, 582-588, 588, 594, 598, 661, 673, 738, 782, 1178, 1223,
circumvention technology ban and, 661,
creative Commons license vs., 1178,
fuzziness of, 1223,
in documentary film, 386,
in sampling works, 440,
Internet burdens on, 588, 594,
legal intimidation tactics against, 598, 738, 782,
technological restriction of, 673

Fairbank, Robert 428

Fallows, James 688-689

Fanning, Shawn 285

Faraday, Michael 27

farming 512, 520-524

FCC 37, 683, 698, 1129,
media ownership regulated by, 683, 1129,
on FM radio, 37,
on television production studios, 698

Felten, Ed 192, 647-658, 662-663, 674

feudal system 1119-1120

Fifth Amendment 485

film industry 321, 472, 475, 483, 596, 687, 906, 1068, 1079, 1270,
consolidation of, 687,
luxury theatres vs. video piracy in, 1270,
rating system of, 475,
trade association of, 472, 483, 906, 1068, 1079,
trailer advertisements of, 596,
VCR taping facility opposed by, 321

Film industry 222,
patent piracy at the inception of, 222

film sampling 438-441

films 89, 386, 391, 405, 410, 455, 458, 468, 930, 933, 934, 944, 1069,
animated, 89,
archive of, 455, 458,
clips and collages of, 405,
fair use of copyrighted material in, 386,
in public domain, 930, 1069,
multiple copyrights associated with, 391, 410, 934,
restoration of, 933, 944,
total number of, 468

First Amendment 55, 517, 584, 713, 953, 964, 978, 1032,
copyright extension as violation of, 953, 964, 978, 1032

first-sale doctrine 601

Fisher, William 828, 1266-1268

Florida, Richard 86

FM radio 35-40, 515, 823-825, 1078

Forbes, Steve 1049, 1066

formalities 559-561, 1194-1207

Fourneaux, Henri 228-229

Fox (film company) 393-394, 398-400, 689

Fox, William 223

free culture 48, 121, 384, 491, 740, 1151, 1174,
Creative Commons license for recreation of, 1174,
derivative works based on, 121,
English legal establishment of, 384,
four modalities of constraint on, 491,
permission culture vs., 48, 740,
restoration efforts on previous aspects of, 1151

Free for All (Wayner) 1185

free market, technological changes in 515-517

Free Software Foundation 969, 1164

free software/open-source software (FS/OSS) 186, 275, 1108-1115, 1158-1165

Fridman, Milton 972-974

Fried, Charles 973-974, 993

Frost, Robert 884, 893-905, 915, 918

Future of Ideas, The (Lessig) 614, 624, 793, 1220

Garlick, Mia 1180

Gates, Bill 515, 1117

General Film Company 223

General Public License (GPL) 1110, 1164

generic drugs 1116

Gershwin, George 977-978

Gil, Gilberto 1137

Ginsburg, Ruth Bader 982, 984, 1020

Girl Scouts 81

Global Positioning System 1103

GNU/Linux operating system 275, 969, 1109, 1163

Godwin, Mike 163

Goldstein, Paul 1237

Google 201-202, 206

GPL (General Public License) 1110, 1164

Gracie Films 392-393

Grimm fairy tales 98-99, 120-121, 881

Grisham, John 236-237, 1234

Groening, Matt 392-394, 398-400

guns 670-671, 908-910

hacks 641-645

Hal Roach Studios 930, 971

handguns 670-671

Hawthorne, Nathaniel 879-882

Henry V. 346

Henry VIII, King of England 358

Herrera, Rebecca 395-396

Heston, Charlton 256

history, records of 448

HIV/AIDS therapies 1082-1097

Hollywood film industry 222-225

Horovitz, Jed 786-787

House of Lords 376-381, 384

Hummer Winblad 803

Hummer, John 803

Hyde, Rosel 252

IBM 1109, 1158

if value, then right, theory 81-82, 220

images, ownership of 138-142, 781

innovation 285, 320, 326, 692, 788,
copyright profit balanced with, 320, 326,
industry establishment opposed to, 320, 788,
media conglomeration as disincentive for, 692

innovative freedom balanced with fair compensation in 326-338

Innovator's Dilemma, The (Christensen) 703

insecticide, environmental consequences of 520-526

Intel 813, 969

intellectual property rights 59-67, 1097, 1103, 1111, 1113,
international organization on issues of, 1103, 1111,
of drug patents, 1097,
U.S. Patent Office on private control of, 1113

international law 266-271, 1088-1099

Internet 42, 75, 163, 166, 167, 172, 175, 177, 198, 285, 308, 508, 579, 588, 610, 615, 648, 677, 755, 777, 780, 809, 818, 839, 862, 1103, 1148, 1155, 1183, 1206, 1252,
blogs on, 166, 172,
books on, 308, 588, 610, 1183,
copyright applicability altered by technology of, 579,
copyright enforced through, 615, 677,
copyright regulatory balance lost with, 508,
creative Web sites on, 777,
development of, 42, 1103, 1148,
domain name registration on, 1206,
efficient content distribution on, 75, 809,
encryption systems designed for, 648,
initial free character of, 1148,
music files downloaded from, 285, 755, 839,
news events on, 163, 175,
peer-generated rankings on, 177,
privacy protection on, 1155,
public discourse conducted on, 167,
radio on, 818,
search engines used on, 198,
speed of access, 1252,
user identities released by service providers of, 780, 862

Internet Archive 443-461, 458, 469, 920, 970

Internet Explorer 277

interstate commerce 909-913, 987

Iraq war 179

ISPs (Internet service providers), user identities revealed by 780, 862-866

Iwerks, Ub. 92

Japanese comics 105-113, 122-123

Jaszi, Peter 890, 1036

Jefferson, Thomas 341, 488-489, 1181

Johnson, Lyndon 472

Johnson, Samuel 380

Jones, Day, Reavis and Pogue (Jones Day) 962-963, 973, 993

Jordan, Jesse 198, 202-218, 778, 840, 863

journalism 178-181

jury system 169

Just Think! 143-145, 164, 185-190

Kahle, Brewster 196, 450-470, 920, 947-950

Kaplan, Benjamin 1231

Kazaa 286, 304, 756, 758

Keaton, Buster 94-96, 120

Kelly, Kevin 1074

Kennedy, Anthony 981, 1003-1004, 1032, 1045

Kennedy, John F. 472, 819

Kittredge, Alfred 230-231

knowledge, freedom of 361

Kodak cameras 132-136, 141, 514, 775

Kodak Primer, The (Eastman) 132-133

Kozinski, Alex 324

Krim, Jonathan 1111-1113

land ownership, air traffic and 19-27, 1229

Laurel and Hardy films 930

law 276, 349, 366, 491, 497, 507, 542, 836, 1167,
as constraint modality, 491, 497, 507,
citizen respect for, 836,
common vs. positive, 349, 366,
databases of case reports in, 276, 1167,
federal vs. state, 542

law schools 842

lawyers 801, 1223, 1281,
copyright cultural balance impeded by, 1223, 1281,
malpractice suits against, 801

Leaphart, Walter 1186

Lear, Norman 695-697, 699

legal system, attorney costs in 213, 778-779, 782-787, 1281-1293

Lessig, Lawrence 37-38, 491, 614, 624, 793, 887, 891, 907, 953, 1105, 1121, 1220-1227,
Eldred case involvement of, 887, 891, 907, 953,
in international debate on intellectual property, 1105, 1121

Lexis and Westlaw 1167-1168

libraries 447, 451, 454, 463, 466, 739, 880, 949, 1156, 1167, 1170,
archival function of, 447, 451, 454, 463, 466, 739, 949,
journals in, 1167, 1170,
of public-domain literature, 880,
privacy rights in use of, 1156

Library of Congress 451, 455, 831

Licensing Act (1662) 349

Linux operating system 275, 969, 1109, 1163

Litman, Jessica 816

Lofgren, Zoe 1067

Lott, Trent 175

Lovett, Lyle 756, 795

Lucky Dog, The 930

Madonna 246-247, 493

manga 105-113, 122-123

Mansfield, William Murray, Lord 73, 373-374

market competition 515, 602

market constraints 495-496, 499, 508, 790-791, 806-808

Marx Brothers 607-610, 629

McCain, John 685

media 32, 175, 176, 179, 179, 683, 1129,
blog pressure on, 175,
commercial imperatives of, 176, 179,
ownership concentration in, 32, 179, 683, 1129

media literacy 144-163

Mehra, Salil 113-114

MGM 473

Michigan Technical University 210

Mickey Mouse 571, 915, 918, 967

Microsoft 202, 275, 275, 406, 647, 1108, 1111,
competitive strategies of, 275,
government case against, 647,
international software piracy of, 275,
network file system of, 202,
on free software, 1108,
Windows operating system of, 275,
WIPO meeting opposed by, 1111

Middlemarch (Eliot) 614-615, 619

Mikey Mouse 89-98

Millar v. Taylor 371-376

Milton, John 360, 380

monopoly, copyright as 358-385

Monroe, Marilyn 819

Morrison, Alan 973

Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) 472-475, 483, 906, 1068-1070, 1079

Motion Pictures Patents Company (MPPC) 222-224, 266

Movie Archive 458

Moyers, Bill 700

MP3 players 803

MP3.com 794-802

MP3s 508

Mr. Rogers' Neighborhood 664

MTV 298

Murdoch, Rupert 688-689

music publishing 73, 230-232

music recordings 468,
total number of, 468

MusicStore 1269

my.mp3.com 794-802

Myers, Mike 437-439

Müller, Paul Hermann 520-523

Napster 141, 251, 285-286, 286, 289, 315, 431, 803, 864,
infringing material blocked by, 315,
number of registrations on, 286,
range of content on, 289,
recording industry tracking users of, 864,
replacement of, 286,
venture capital for, 803

Nashville Songwriters Association 916

National Writers Union 970

Needleman, Raffe 803-804

Nesson, Charlie 842

NET (No Electronic Theft) Act (1988) 886

Netanel, Neil Weinstock 55

Netscape 277

New Hampshire (Frost) 884

News Corp 689

news coverage 161-182, 451-457

newspapers 447, 453, 687,
archives of, 447, 453,
ownership consolidation of, 687

Nick and Norm anti-drug campaign 709

Nimmer, David 430-431

Nimmer, Melville 1284

Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals 324, 431

Nixon, Richard 1227

No Electronic Theft (NET) Act (1988) 886

norms, regulatory influence of 494-495, 499, 507-508

O'Connor, Sandra Day 981, 999-1000

Olson, Theodore B. 1011-1013

Oppenheimer, Matt 212

originalism 1028

Orwell, George 444-445

parallel importation 1088-1089

Paramount Pictures 473

Patent and Trademark Office, U.S. 1113-1128

patents 222, 225, 550, 884, 1024, 1085, 1116,
duration of, 225, 1024,
future patents vs. future copyrights in, 884,
in public domain, 550, 884,
on film technology, 222,
on pharmaceuticals, 1085, 1116

Patterson, Raymond 368

peer-to-peer (p2p) file sharing 75, 280, 283, 285, 289, 305, 307, 315, 335, 508, 754, 755, 755, 760, 761, 763, 863, 886, 1240, 1244,
benefits of, 305, 335,
efficiency of, 75,
felony punishments for, 755, 886,
four types of, 289, 1244,
infringement protections in, 315, 763,
of books, 307,
participation levels of, 285,
piracy vs., 280, 283,
reform proposals of copyright restraints on, 1240,
regulatory balance lost in, 508, 863,
shoplifting vs., 754,
total legalization of, 755, 760,
zero-tolerance of, 761

permission culture 48, 740, 806,
free culture vs., 48, 740,
transaction cost of, 806

permissions 137, 409, 615,
coded controls vs., 615,
for use of film clips, 409,
photography exempted from, 137

pharmaceutical patents 1085-1099

phonograph 228-230

photocopyring machines 731

photography 129-142

piracy 96, 105, 219, 262, 266, 266, 272, 273, 275, 280, 283, 303, 314, 564, 579, 754, 771, 1270,
commercial, 262,
derivative work vs., 96, 105, 564, 579,
in Asia, 266, 272, 275, 1270,
in development of content industry, 219,
international, 266,
of intangible property, 273, 303, 754,
p2p file sharing vs., 280, 283,
profit reduction as criterion of, 280, 283, 314,
uncritical rejection of, 771

player pianos 228-229, 233, 320

PLoS (Public Library of Science) 1103, 1172

political discourse 167, 171-182

Politics (Aristotle) 621

Porgy and Bess 977

pornography 977

positive law 349, 366

power, concentration of 10-12, 61

Prelinger, Rick 458

Princeton University 210

privacy rights 860-863, 1152-1157

Progress Clause 528-533, 887-889, 969, 987, 1029

prohibition, citizen rebellion against 836-869

Promises to Keep (Fisher) 1266-1267

property rights 19, 339, 342, 485, 738, 1119, 1195, 1229, 1233,
air traffic vs., 19, 1229, 1233,
as balance of public good vs. private, 738,
copyright vs., 339, 738,
feudal system of, 1119,
formalities associated with, 1195,
intangibility of, 342,
Takings Clause on, 485

proprietary code 1161-1162

protection of artists vs. business interests 49

Public Citizen 973

public domain 101, 311, 379, 541, 549, 614, 633, 724, 779, 880, 915, 930, 1065, 1069, 1103, 1168,
access fees for material in, 1168,
balance of U.S. content in, 541, 724,
content industry opposition to, 1065,
defined, 101,
e-book restrictions on, 614, 633,
English legal establishment of, 379,
films in, 930, 1069,
future patents vs. future copyrights in, 549,
legal murkiness on, 779,
library of works derived from, 880,
license system for rebuilding of, 1168,
p2p sharing of works in, 311,
protection of, 915,
public projects in, 1103,
traditional term for conversion to, 101

Public Enemy 1186

Public Library of Science (PLoS) 1103, 1172

Quayle, Dan 452

radio 27, 244, 318, 515, 686, 688, 818, 819, 823, 1078,
FM spectrum of, 27, 515, 823, 1078,
music recordings played on, 244, 318, 819,
on Internet, 818,
ownership concentration in, 686, 688

railroad industry 514

rap music 438

RCA 32-41, 515, 772, 1078, 1144

Reagan, Ronald 974, 993, 1103

Real Networks 1269

recording industry 207, 215, 226, 231, 233, 241, 244, 266, 292, 297, 301, 306, 318, 685, 757, 762, 778, 799, 819, 819, 827, 827, 833, 839, 1136, 1214, 1265,
artist remuneration in, 215, 244, 318, 819, 827, 833, 1265,
CD sales level in, 301,
composers' rights vs. producers' rights in, 231,
copyright infringement lawsuits of, 207, 757, 778, 799, 839, 1136,
copyright protections in, 226, 318, 762, 819, 1214,
international piracy in, 266,
Internet radio hampered by, 827,
new technology opposed by, 297,
out-of-print music of, 292, 306,
ownership concentration in, 685,
piracy in, 226,
radio broadcast and, 241, 318, 827,
statutory license system in, 233

Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) 207, 209, 215, 301, 656, 663, 672, 757, 778, 799, 827, 833, 839, 862, 863, 906, 1136,
copyright infringement lawsuits filed by, 207, 757, 778, 799, 839, 1136,
intimidation tactics of, 209, 839, 863,
ISP user identities sought by, 862,
lobbying power of, 215, 827, 906,
on CD sales decline, 301,
on circumvention technology, 663, 672,
on encryption system critique, 656,
on Internet radio fees, 827, 833

regulation 491, 511, 788, 799, 806, 836,
as establishment protectionism, 511, 788,
four modalities of, 491,
outsize penalties of, 799, 806,
rule of law degraded by excess of, 836

Rehnquist, William H. 911-912, 981

remote channel changers 514

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) 198-200,
computer network search engine of, 198

Republican Party 427, 1049

Rhapsody in Blue (Gershwin) 918

Rip, Mix, Burn technologies 849-850

Rise of the Creative Class, The (Florida) 86

Roberts, Michael 794

robotic dog 640-646, 654-655, 662, 673-674

Rogers, Fred 664

Romeo and Juliet (Shakespeare) 346-348, 354

Rose, Mark 369

Russel, Phil 228

Saferstein, Harvey 428

Safire, William 1129

San Francisco Opera 389, 397

Sarnoff, David 33

Saturday Night Live 437

Scalia, Antonin 981, 997, 1011-1012, 1042

Scarlet Letter, The (Hawthorne) 882

Schlafy, Phyllis 967

schools, gun possession near 908-910

Schwartz, John 335

scientific journals 1166-1173

Scottish publishers 351, 368-371, 375-380, 381

Screen Actors Guild 256

search engines 198-208

Seasons, The (Thomson) 372

Secure Digital Music Initiative (SDMI) 648-653

semiotic democracy 1268

Senate, U.S. 488, 533, 1130,
FCC media ownership rules reversed by, 1130

Sentelle, David 955-957, 968, 986

September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks of 161-163, 166, 457

Setnelle, David 1026

Seuss, Dr. 977-978

Shakespeare, William 124, 346, 354, 357, 380

sheet music 73, 233

Silent Spring (Carson) 522

Simpsons, The 390-406

single nucleotied polymorphisms (SNPs) 1103

Slade, Michael 411-413

slavery 488

Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act (CTEA) (1998) 549-550, 552, 885-886, 906, 919, 931, 953, 964, 966, 979, 1060, 1284,
Supreme Court challenge of, 953, 964, 966, 979, 1060, 1284

Sony 321, 640, 654, 662,
Aibo robotic dog produced by, 640, 654, 662,
Betamax technology developed by, 321

Sony Music Entertainment 685

Sony Pictures Entertainment 473

Sousa, John Philip 232

Souter, David 982, 984, 1021, 1032

South Africa, Republic of, pharmaceutical imports by 1088-1093

speech, freedom of 475, 517, 652,
constitutional guarantee of, 517,
film-rating system vs., 475,
useful criticism fostered by, 652

speeding, constraints on 499-500, 868

spider 442

Spielberg, Steven 438-439

Stallman, Richard 1159-1165

Stanford University 1176

Starwave 406-413

Statue of Monopolies (1656) 358

Statute of Anne (1710) 348, 351-352, 355, 363-365, 369-377, 375-377, 542

statutory damages 209

statutory licenses 235-239, 274, 318, 816, 1239, 1260-1261,
composer's rights vs. producers' rights in, 318

Steamboat Bill, Jr. 94-96, 110, 139

Steamboat Willie 89-98

steel industry 512

Stevens, John Paul 982, 985, 1024

Stewart, Gordon 962-963

Story, Joseph 1060

Sullivan, Kathleen 973

Superman comics 112

Supreme Court, U.S. 22, 259, 324, 325, 333, 376, 713, 908, 913, 953, 958, 981, 1167,
access to opinions of, 1167,
annual docket of, 958,
congressional actions restrained by, 908, 913, 981,
factions of, 981,
House of Lords vs., 376,
on airspace vs. land rights, 22,
on balance of interests in copyright law, 325, 333,
on cable television, 259,
on copyright term extensions, 908, 953,
on television advertising bans, 713,
on VCR technology, 324

Sutherland, Donald 416

Takings Clause 485-486

Talbot, William 130

Tatel, David 957

tax system 841-842

Taylor, Robert 372

technology 285, 297, 432, 465, 469, 509, 579, 606, 611, 655, 661, 730, 762, 774, 780, 806, 849, 851,
archival opportunity offered through, 465, 469,
copyright enforcement controlled by, 606, 611, 762, 780, 851,
copyright intent altered by, 579,
cut-and-paste culture enabled by, 432, 849,
established industries threatened by changes in, 297, 509,
innovative improvements in, 285,
legal murkiness on, 806,
of circumvention, 655, 661,
of copying, 730,
of digital capturing and sharing, 774

television 147, 251, 319, 321, 472, 514, 664, 685, 687, 695, 709, 713, 1270,
advertising on, 147, 514, 709,
cable vs. broadcast, 251, 319, 1270,
controversy avoided by, 713,
independent production for, 695,
industry association of, 472,
ownership consolidation in, 685, 687,
VCR taping of, 321, 664

Television Archive 451, 456-457

Thomas, Clarence 981

Thomson, James 372-373, 376

Thurmond, Storm 175

Tocqueville, Alexis de 169

Tonson, Jacob 347-348

Torvalds, Linus 1163

Turner, Ted 1129

Twentieth Century Fox 473

twins, as chimera 752-754

United Kingdom 345, 1137,
history of copyright law in, 345,
public creative archive in, 1137

United States Trade Representative (USTR) 1089

United States v. Lopez 911-912, 914, 981, 987, 1008, 1019-1022, 1026-1028

United States v. Morrison 912, 981

Universal Music Group 685, 803

Universal Pictures 321-329, 473

university computer networks, p2p sharing on 198-218, 759, 865-866, 1136

usage restrictions attached to 356

used record sales 307

Valenti, Jack 52, 323, 472, 474, 476, 575, 857, 997, 1068,
background of, 472, 474,
Eldred Act opposed by, 1068,
on creative property rights, 52, 476, 575,
on VCR technology, 323

Vanderbuilt University 451

VCRs 321-323, 327-330, 664-674, 816, 1249

venture capitalists 792, 803

Verizon Internet Services 862

veterans' pensions 1224

Video Pipeline 596-601, 786

Vivendi Universal 765, 799-801

von Lohmann, Fred 858-860, 867-868

Wagner, Richard 389-390, 396

Warner Brothers 409, 473, 607-609, 629

Warner Music Group 685

Way Back Machine 443, 446, 451

Wayner, Peter 1185

Web sites, domain name registration of 1206

Web-logs (blogs) 166-168, 172-182

Webster, Noah 45

Wellcome Trust 1103

Wells, H.G. 743-751

willful infringement 599

Windows 275

Winer, Dave 178-182

Winick, Judd 111-112

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) 1103-1107, 1111-1122

World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) 1106-1107, 1116

World Trade Center 161

World Wide Web 1103

WorldCom 778

Wright brothers 18-19, 26, 60

Yanofsky, Dave 145

Zimmerman, Edwin 257-258



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