The Wealth of Networks - How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom
Yochai Benkler

Book Index

Abilene, Texas 717

access 11, 35, 281, 295, 296, 298, 355, 366, 434, 463, 559, 609, 702, 704, 705,
broadband services, concentration of, 434,
cable providers, regulation of, 704, 705,
human development and justice, 11, 35,
influence exaction, 295, 298,
large-audience programming, 355, 366, 463,
limited by mass media, 355,
systematically blocked by policy routers, 281, 296, 355, 702,
to medicine, 609,
to raw data, 559

accreditation 34, 135, 151-161, 152, 153, 154, 155, 204, 297, 314-322, 317, 337, 338, 355, 358, 359, 397, 423, 429,
Amazon, 152,
as distributed system, 317,
as public good, 34,
capacity for, by mass media, 358,
concentration of mass-media power, 297, 397, 423, 429,
Google, 153,
of mass media owners, 355,
Open Directory Project (ODP), 154,
power of mass media owners, 359, 397,
Slashdot, 155, 204

Ackerman, Bruce 338, 508, 545-548

active vs. passive consumers 249-250, 262-263

ad hoc mesh networks 179

Adamic, Lada 443, 446-447, 461

Adams, Scott 265

advertiser-supported media 348-351, 355, 358-365, 364, 366, 464,
denominator programming, 355, 366,
lowest-common-denominator programming, 464,
reflection of consumer preference, 364

aggregate effect of individual action 18

agnostic giving 170

agricultural innovation, commons-based 586-608

Albert, Reka 443, 446, 451

alertness, undermined by commercialism 355, 366-375

alienation 637-639

allocating excess capacity 166-181, 221-224, 297, 620-622

Alstott, Anne 545

altruism 169-170

Amazon 152-153

anticircumvention provisions, DMCA 730-734

antidevice provisions, DMCA 731

Antidilutation Act of 1995 522, 671, 784-786

appropriation strategies 101-103

arbitrage, domain names 757

archiving of scientific publications 580-581

Arrow, Kenneth 79, 186

ArXiv.org 580-581

asymmetric commons 121-122

AT&T 346, 348-351

Atrios (blogger Duncan Black) 470

attention fragmentation 41, 421, 430-431, 459-460, 818-819

authoring of scientific publications 578-580

authoritarian control 426, 473,
working around, 473

autonomy 26-29, 51-56, 203, 258-322, 269, 278, 279, 309, 506, 815-819,
culture and, 506,
formal conception of, 269,
independence of Web sites, 203,
information environment, structure of, 278, 279,
mass media and, 309

B92 radio 475

Babel objection 31, 34, 314-323, 419, 424, 429-436, 818-819

backbone Web sites 448-450

background knowledge 543,
see culture bad luck, justice and, 543

Bagdikian, Ben 367

Baker, Edwin 310, 364

Balkin, Jack 40, 459, 498, 513, 527, 529

Barabasi, Albert-László 443-444, 446, 451

Barbie (doll), culture of 500, 516-520

Barlow, John Perry 94

BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) 345

Beebe, Jack 371

behavior 21, 183, 223, 286, 316, 659,
enforced with social software, 659,
motivation to produce, 21, 183, 223,
number and variety of options, 286, 316

Benabou, Ronald 187

benefit maximization 89

Beniger, James 343

Bennett, James Gorden 343

Berlusconi effect 361, 365, 397-402

BioForge 607

bioinfomatics 621

BioMed Central 579

biomedical research, commons-based 609-623

BIOS initiative 606-608

biotechnology 590-597

blocked access 281, 295, 296, 298, 316, 355, 366, 426, 464, 473, 702,
authoritarian control, 426, 473,
autonomy and, 281, 316,
influence exaction, 295, 298,
large-audience programming, 355, 366, 464,
mass media and, 355,
policy routers, 281, 296, 355, 702

blogs 388-391, 396, 454, 470, 659,
as social software, 659,
Sinclair Broadcasting case study, 396,
small-worlds effects, 454,
watchdog functionality, 470

blood donation 186

boradband networks 62

bow tie structure of Web 448-450

Bower, Chris 398

boycott of Sinclair Broadcasting 396-402

BoycottSBG.com site 398-399, 402

Boyd, Dana 653

Boyle, James 63, 732, 783

branding 522, 754, 782,
domain names and, 754,
trademark dilutation, 522, 782

bridging social relationships 653

Bristol, Virginia 716-717

broadband networks 290, 434, 704, 709, 715,
cable as commons, 704,
concentration in access services, 434,
market structure of, 290,
municipal initiatives, 715,
open wireless networks, 709,
regulation of, 704

broadcast flag regulation 722

broadcasting, radio. See radio broadcasting, toll 349-351

Broder, Andrei 448

browsers 759-761

Bt cotton 597

building on existing information 81-83, 108

Bullock, William 343

business decisions vs. editorial decisions 365

business strategies for information production 88-99

cable broadband transport, as commons 704-708

CAMBIA research institute 606-608

capabilities of individuals 16, 43, 51-56, 108, 195, 238, 513, 545,
as modality of production, 238,
as physical capital, 195,
coordinated effects of individual actions, 16,
cultural shift, 513,
economic condition and, 545,
human capacity as resource, 108,
technology and human affairs, 43

capacity 108, 166, 167, 175, 194, 217, 218, 221, 246, 281, 296, 297, 355, 358, 366, 397, 403, 463, 620, 702, 711, 806,
diversity of content in large audience media, 355,
diversity of content in large-audience media, 366, 463,
human communication, 108, 194, 217,
mass media limits on, 358,
networked public sphere generation, 403,
networked public sphere reaction, 397,
opportunities created by social production, 246,
policy routers, 281, 296, 355, 702,
processing (computational), 167, 175,
radio sharing, 711,
securing, 806,
sharing, 166, 221, 297, 620,
storage, 175,
transaction costs, 218

capital for production 21-22, 73, 89, 120, 195, 216, 309,
control of, 195,
cost minimization and benefit maximization, 89,
fixed and initial costs, 216,
production costs as limiting, 309,
transaction costs, 120

Carey, James 256

carriage requirements of cable providers 707-708

Castells, Manuel 41, 41, 48, 642

CBDPTA (Consumer Broadband and Digital Television Promotion Act) 721

Cejas, Rory 261-262, 271

censorship 477-479

centralization of communication 477,
authoritarian filtering, 477

centralization of communications 31, 123, 423, 429-436, 462-466,
decentralization, 31, 123

CGIAR's GCP program 605

Chakrabarti, Soumen 451

Chandler, Alfred 343

channels, transmission 429,
See transport channel policy chaotic, Internet as, 429

Chaplin, Charlie 265

chat rooms 478-479

Chinese agricultural research 597

Chung, Minn 476-477

Cisco policy routers 281-284, 296, 298, 355-358, 702,
influence exaction, 296, 298

Clark, Dave 727

Clarke, Ian 479

click-wrap licenses 778-781

clickworkers project 137-139

clinical trials, peer-produced 622

clusters in network topology 34, 338, 358, 446-453, 448, 455-460,
bow tie structure of Web, 448,
synthesis of public opinion, 338, 358

Coase, Ronald 120, 177

Cohen, Julie 732

Coleman, James 189, 641

collaboration, open-source 131-132

collaborative authorship 56, 391, 598, 613, 659,
among universities, 598, 613,
See also peer production collective social action, 56,
social software, 659

commercial culture, production of 529-530

commercial mass media 323, 327, 331, 341, 353, 353, 357, 397,
as platform for public sphere, 327, 341, 357,
basic critiques of, 353,
corrective effects of network environment, 397,
criticisms, 353,
design characteristics of liberal public sphere, 331,
See also traditional model of communication commercial mass media, political freedom and, 323,
structure of, 327

commercial model of communication 16-17, 29, 31, 57-66, 120, 146, 208, 244, 309, 327, 340, 356, 539, 611, 671, 674-807, 679, 685, 695, 803, 808, 825,
autonomy and, 309,
barriers to justice, 539,
emerging role of mass media, 327, 340, 356,
enclosure movement, 671,
mapping, framework for, 685,
medical innovation and, 611,
path dependency, 679,
relationship with social producers, 244,
security-related policy, 146, 695, 803,
shift away from, 31,
stakes of information policy, 808,
structure of mass media, 327,
transaction costs, 120, 208

commercial press 341-343, 363

commercialism, undermining political concern 355, 366-375

common-carriage regulatory system 301

commons 59, 61, 120-123, 122, 180, 215, 252-257, 276, 289, 550, 564-565, 704, 715,
autonomy and, 276,
cable providers as, 704,
crispness of social exchange, 215,
human welfare and development, 550,
municipal broadband initiatives, 715,
types of, 122,
wireless communications as, 180, 289

commons, production through 568-583, 584-608, 609, 624,
food and agricultural innovation, 584,
medical and pharmaceutical innovation, 609,
see peer production commons-based research, 568, 584, 609, 624

communication 108, 194, 217, 218, 367, 473, 598, 613, 631,
authoritarian control, working around, 473,
capacity of, 108,
feasibility conditions for social production, 194,
pricing, 217,
thickening of preexisting relations, 631,
through performance, 367,
transaction costs, 218,
university alliances, 598, 613

communication diversity 385,
See diversity communication tools, 385

communities 40, 41, 50, 67, 139, 149, 153, 218, 263, 421, 430, 459, 525, 630, 664, 709, 715, 818,
as persons, 50,
critical culture and self-reflection, 40, 139, 153, 218, 525,
fragmentation of, 41, 421, 430, 459, 818,
human and Internet, together, 664,
immersive entertainment, 149, 263,
municipal broadband initiatives, 715,
open wireless networks, 709,
technology-defined social structure, 67,
virtual, 630

community clusters 245, 297,
communications infrastructure, 297,
market and nonmarket producers, 245

computational capacity 167-168, 175, 218,
transaction costs, 218

computer gaming environment 149-150, 263

computers 206, 220, 294, 718,
as shareable, lumpy goods, 220,
infrastructure ownership, 294,
policy on physical devices, 718

concentration in broadband access services 434-435

concentration of mass-media power 297, 355, 359-365, 397, 423-424, 429-436,
corrective effects of network environment, 397

concentration of Web attention 437-466

connectivity 175-176

constrains of information production, physical 60-62

constraints of information production, monetary 21, 73, 89, 120, 195, 216, 309,
control of, 195,
cost minimization and benefits maximization, 89,
fixed and initial costs, 216,
production costs as limiting, 309,
transaction cost, 120

constraints of information production, physical 16-17

constraints on behavior 364,
See autonomy, freedom consumer demand for information, 364

consumer surplus 249, 262,
See capacity, sharing consumerism, active vs. passive, 249, 262

contact, online vs. physical 638-639

content layer of institutional ecology 676-677, 691, 696, 767-802, 769, 823-825,
copyright issues, 769,
recent changes, 696

context, cultural 778,
see culture cultural enclosure, 778

control of public sphere 531,
See mass media controlling culture, 531

controversy, avoidance of 367

cooperation gain 179

coordinated effects of individual actions 16-18

copyleft 129, 606-607

copyright issues 501, 769-778

core Web sites 448-450, 448-450

cost 89, 108, 194, 214, 217, 309, 810, 813,
capital for production creative capacity, 108,
crispness of, 214,
feasibility conditions for social production, 194,
minimizing, 89,
of production, as limiting, 309,
pricing, 217,
proprietary models, 810,
technologies, 813

Creative Commons initiative 801

creativity, value of 214-219

criminalization of copyright infringement 775

crispness of currency exchange 214-219

critical culture and self-reflection 40-41, 140, 154, 218, 525-526,
Open Directory Project, 154,
self-identification as transaction cost, 218,
Wikipedia project, 140

culture 40, 139, 153, 189, 214, 218, 262, 273, 281, 295, 298, 315, 397, 485-536, 505, 515, 525, 531, 532, 818-819,
as motivational context, 189,
criticality of (self-reflection), 40, 139, 153, 218, 525,
freedom of, 505, 532,
influence exaction, 295, 298,
of television, 262,
participatory, policies for, 531,
security of context, 273,
shaping perceptions of others, 281, 315, 397, 531,
social exchange, crispness of, 214,
transparency of, 515

daily newspapers 85

dailyKos.com site 398

data storage capacity 175, 218,
transaction costs, 218

Database Directive 788-789

database protection 787-790, 791,
trespass to chattels, 791

Davis, Nick 398-399, 445, 464

Dawkins, Richard 513

de minimis digital sampling 777

de Solla Price, Derek 441

de Tocqueville, Alexis 342

Dean, Howard 463

decentralization of communications 31-34, 123

Deci, Edward 187

DeCSS program 734

defining price 214-219

demand for information, consumer 364

demand-side effects of information production 91, 94

democratic societies 24-39, 26, 30, 31, 35, 40, 51, 203, 324-325, 550,
autonomy, 26,
critical culture and social relations, 40,
independence of Web sites, 203,
individual capabilities in, 51,
justice and human development, 35,
public sphere, shift from mass media, 30,
shift from mass-media communications model, 31,
social-democratic theories of justice, 550

democratizing effects of Internet 377-384, 416,
critiques of claims of, 416

depression 637-639

deregulation 45,
See policy determinism, technological, 45

development, commons-based 568-583, 584, 609, 624-628,
food and agricultural innovation, 584,
medical and pharmaceutical innovation, 609

devices (physical), policy regarding 718-725,
see also computers, 718

Diebold Election Systems 403-415, 469, 686-689

digital divide 427

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) 671, 729-736

digital sampling 777

dignity 50

Dill, Stephen 450

dilutation of trademarks 522, 782-786

discussion lists (electronic) 387

displacement of real-world interaction 631, 642-647

distributed computing projects 168-170

distributed filtering and accreditation 317-318

distributed production 165

distribution lists (electronic) 387

distribution of information 135, 162-165, 437, 616,
power law distribution of site connections, 437,
university-based innovation, 616

diversity 21, 41, 101, 112, 183, 200, 221, 223, 249, 286, 308-313, 309, 316, 355, 366, 421, 430, 459, 463, 817,
appropriation strategies, 101,
changes in taste, 249,
fragmentation of communication, 41, 421, 430, 459, 817,
granularity of participation, 200, 221,
human communication, 112,
human motivation, 21,
large-audience programming, 355, 366, 463,
mass-mediated environments, 309,
motivation to produce, 21, 183, 223,
of behavioral options, 286, 316

DMCA (Digital Millennium Copyright Act) 671, 729-736

Doctors Without Borders 614

domain name system 753-758

Drezner, Daniel 451, 459

drugs, commons-based research on 609-623

DSL 543,
see broadband networks dumb luck, justice and, 543

Dworkin, Gerard 269

Dworkin, Ronald 545, 548

Dyson, Esther 94

e-mail 387, 643,
thickening of preexisting relations, 643

eBay v. Bidder's Edge 791-795

economic analysis, role of 47-48

economic data, access to 559-560

economic opportunity 255

economics in liberal political theory 49-51, 505, 532,
cultural freedom, 505, 532

economics of information production and innovation 77-117, 88, 100, 105, 114,
current production strategies, 88,
exclusive rights, 100, 114,
production of computer networks, 105

economics of nonmarket production 120, 182-250, 208, 225,
emergence in digital networks, 225,
transaction costs, 120, 208

Edelman, Ben 477

editorial filtering 365,
See relevance filtering editorial vs. business decisions, 365

educational instruction 562, 582

efficiency of information regulation 79-87, 100-104, 208-224, 221, 291, 571, 810-813,
capacity reallocation, 221,
property protections, 571,
wireless communications policy, 291

Eisenstein, Elizabeth 45

Eldred v. Ashcroft 776

electronic voting machines (case study) 403-415, 469, 686-689

enclosure movement 671-672

encryption 804-805

encryption circumvention 730-733

entertainment industry 149, 263, 545, 720, 746,
hardware regulation and, 720,
immersive, 149, 263,
peer-to-peer networks and, 746,
see also music industry entitlement theory, 545

environmental criticism of GM foods 593-594

ethic (journalistic) vs. business necessity 355, 365-375

excess capacity, sharing 166-181, 221-224, 297, 620-622

exercise of programming power 355, 360-365, 397,
corrective effects of network environment, 397

existing information, building on 81-83, 108

extrinsic motivations 187-190

factual reporting, access to 561

fair use and copyright 772-774

family relations, strengthening of 631, 642-647

Fanning, Shawn 172, 739

Farrell, Henry 451, 459

FastTrak architecture 740

feasibility conditions or social production 194-207

feedback and intake limits of mass media 358

Feinberg, Joel 269

Feist Publications, Inc. v. Rural Tel. Serv. Co. 788-789

Felten, Edward 733

FHSST (Free High School Science Texts) 201, 582

Fightaids@home project 169

file-sharing networks 171-175, 737-752, 804,
security considerations, 804

filtering 34, 135, 151-161, 152, 153, 154, 155, 204, 297, 314-322, 317, 336-337, 355, 358, 397, 423, 425, 426, 429, 429, 462-466, 467,
Amazon, 152,
as distributed system, 317,
as public good, 34,
by authoritarian countries, 426,
capacity for by mass media, 358,
concentration of mass-media power, 297, 355, 358, 423, 429, 429,
corrective effects of network environment, 397,
Google, 153,
Open Directory Project (ODP), 154,
Slashdot, 155, 204,
watchdog functionality, 425, 467

filtering by information provider. See blocked access financial reward, as demotivator 187-190

fine-grained goods 221

first-best preferences 355,
large-audience programming, 355,
power of mass media owners, 355

first-best preferences, mass media and 297, 359, 366, 397, 423, 429, 463,
concentration of mass-media power, 297, 397, 423, 429,
large-audience programming, 366, 463,
of mass media owners, 359,
power of mass media owners, 397

Fisher, William (Terry) 40, 245, 498, 526, 720

Fiske, John 262, 497, 526

fixed costs 216

Folding@home project 168-170

folk culture 585,
see culture food, commons-research based on, 585

food security, commons-based research on 586-608

formal autonomy theory 269-272

formal instruction 562

fragmentation of communication 41, 421, 459-460, 818-819

Franklin, Benjamin 342

Franks, Charles 165, 264

Free High School Science Texts (FHSST) 201, 582

free software 19-20, 37, 96, 125-132, 202, 247, 573, 762, 803,
as competition to market-based business, 247,
commons-based welfare development, 573,
human development and justice, 37,
policy on, 762,
project modularity and granularity, 202,
security considerations, 803

freedom 50, 122, 253, 273, 286, 316, 505, 532,
behavioral options, 286, 316,
cultural, 505, 532,
of commons, 122,
property and commons, 273

Freenet 479

Frey, Bruno 187-188

Friedman, Milton 82

friendships, virtual 637-639

Friendster 653

Froomkin, Michael 727, 755

future 481, 531,
participatory culture, 531,
public sphere, 481

games, immersive 149-150, 263

GCP (Generation Challenge Program) 605

GE (General Electric) 346, 350-351

General Public License (GPL) 126-130, 205,
See also free software, 205

Generation Challenge Program (GCP) 605

genetically modified (GM) foods 590-597

Genome@home project 169

Ghosh, Rishab 207

gifts 226-227

Gilmore, Dan 393, 470

Glance, Natalie 447, 461

global development 550-554, 584, 609, 627-628, 796,
food and agricultural innovation, 584,
international harmonization, 796,
medical and pharmaceutical innovation, 609

GM (genetically modified) foods 590-597

GNU/Linux operating system 128-131

Gnutella 740

Godelier, Maurice 215, 226

golden rice 599

goods, information-embedded 556-558

Google 153

Gould, Stephen Jay 64

government 52, 339, 356, 426, 473,
authoritarian control, 426, 473,
independence from control of, 339, 356,
role of, 52,
working around authorities, 473

GPL (General Public License) 126-130, 205,
See Also free software, 205

Gramsci, Antonio 506-507

Granovetter, Mark 189, 638, 641

granularity 200-203, 221,
of lumpy goods, 221

granularity of participation and 200-203

Green Revolution 589-594

Grokster 742

growth rates of Web sites 443, 446

gTLD-MoU document 754

Habermas, Jurgen 333, 338, 367, 508-509, 727

Hampton, Keith 644

HapMap Project 621

hardware 206, 220, 294, 718,
as shareable, lumpy goods, 220,
infrastructure ownership, 294,
policy on physical devices, 718

hardware regulations 718-725

harmonization, international 796-801

Harris, Bev 405, 408-409, 412

Hart, Michael 164-165, 264

Hayek, Friedrich 51, 274

HDI (Human Development Index) 552-554

health effects of GM foods 593-594

Hearst, William Randolph 365

Heller, Michael 558

HHI (Herfindahl-Hirschman Index) 363

high-production value content 313, 528-530

HIV/AIDS 570-571, 585, 610

Holiday, Billie 493

Hollings, Fritz 721-724

home project 168-170

Hoover, Herbert 348

Hopkins Report 408

Horner, Mark 201

Huberman, Bernardo 443, 446

human affairs, technology and 43-48

human communicative capacity 108-112, 194, 217,
feasibility conditions for social production, 194,
pricing, 217

human community, coexisting with Internet 664-666

human contact, online vs. physical 638-639

human development and justice 35-38, 537-628, 542, 550-554, 568, 820-821,
commons-based research, 568,
liberal theories of, 542

Human Development Index (HDI) 552-554

Human Development Report 552

human motivation 21, 183-194, 189, 200, 221, 223,
crowding out theory, 223,
cultural context of, 189,
granularity of participation and, 200, 221

human welfare 255, 297, 427, 542, 550, 555, 568,
commons-based research, 568,
commons-based strategies, 550,
digital divide, 427,
freedom from constraint, 297,
information-based advantages, 555,
liberal theories of justice, 542

Hundt, Reed 398

hyperlinking on the Web 392, 437, 791,
as trespass, 791,
power law distribution of site connections, 437

IAHC (International Ad Hock Committee) 754

IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) 754

IBM's business strategy 96, 247-248

ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) 755

iconic representations of opinion 367, 373

ideal market 123

immersive entertainment 149-150, 263

implicit knowledge, transfer of 562

incentives to produce 21, 183-194, 189, 200, 221, 223,
crowding out theory, 223,
cultural context, 189,
granularity of participation and, 200, 221

independence from government control 339, 356

independence of Web sites 203

individual autonomy 26-28, 51, 203, 258-322, 269, 278, 279, 309, 506, 815-819,
culture and, 506,
formal conception of, 269,
independence of Web sites, 203,
individual capabilities in, 51,
information environment, structure of, 278, 279,
mass media and, 309

individual capabilities and action 16, 43, 51-56, 108, 195, 238, 513, 545,
as modality of production, 238,
as physical capital, 195,
coordinated effects of individual actions, 16,
cultural shift, 513,
economic condition and, 545,
human capacity as resource, 108,
technology and human affairs, 43

individualist methodologies 47-48

industrial age 73, 265,
destabilization of, 73,
reduction of individual autonomy, 265

industrial ecology of digital environment 356,
emerging role of mass media, 356

industrial model of communication 16-17, 29, 31, 57-66, 120, 146, 208, 244, 309, 327, 340, 356, 539, 563, 611, 671, 674-807, 679, 685, 695, 803, 808, 825-826,
autonomy and, 309,
barriers to justice, 539,
emerging role of mass media, 327, 340, 356,
enclosure movement, 671,
information industries, 563,
mapping, framework for, 685,
medical innovation and, 611,
path dependency, 679,
relationship with social producers, 244,
security-related policy, 146, 695, 803,
shift away from, 31,
stakes of information policy, 808,
structure of mass media, 327,
transaction costs, 120, 208

inefficiency of information regulation 79-87, 100-104, 208-224, 221, 291, 571, 810-813,
capacity reallocation, 221,
property protections, 571,
wireless communications policy, 291

inertness, political 355, 366-375

influence exaction 295-296, 298-300

information appropriation strategies 101-103

information as nonrival 79-83

information economy 11-66, 14, 24, 42, 57, 394, 542,
democracy and liberalism, 24,
effects on public sphere, 394,
emergence of, 14,
institutional ecology, 57,
justice, liberal theories of, 542,
methodological choices, 42

information flow 34, 281, 296, 355, 366, 463, 702,
controlling with policy routers, 281, 296, 355, 702,
large-audience programming, 355, 366, 463,
limited by mass media, 355

information industries 563-565

information overload and Babel objection 31, 34, 314-323, 419, 424, 429-436, 818-819

information production 16, 79, 88, 174, 194, 403, 815,
feasibility conditions for social production, 194,
networked public sphere capacity for, 403,
nonrivalry, 79, 174,
physical constraints on, 16,
strategies of, 88

information production capital 21-22, 73, 89, 120, 195, 216, 309,
control of, 195,
cost minimization and benefit maximization, 89,
fixed and initial costs, 216,
production costs as limiting, 309,
transaction costs, 120

information production economics 77-117, 88, 100, 105, 114,
current production strategies, 88,
exclusive rights, 100, 114,
production over computer networks, 105

information production inputs 81, 108, 135-148, 137, 140, 149, 214, 238, 281, 285, 296, 335, 355, 366, 397, 463, 531, 702,
existing information, 81, 108,
immersive entertainment, 149,
individual action as modality, 238,
large-audience programming, 355, 366, 463,
limited by mass media, 355,
NASA Clickworkers project, 137,
pricing, 214,
propaganda, 285, 397, 531,
systematically blocked by policy routers, 281, 296, 355, 702,
universal intake, 335, 355,
Wikipedia project, 140

information production, market-based 83, 95, 120, 208, 244, 522, 529, 613,
cultural change, transparency of, 522,
mass popular culture, 529,
relationship with social producers, 244,
transaction costs, 120, 208,
universities as, 613,
without property protections, 83, 95

information sharing 175, 216, 218, 294,
infrastructure ownership, 294,
initial costs, 216,
transaction costs, 218

information, defined 71, 559-560

information, perfect 364

information-embedded goods 556-558

information-embedded tools 558

innovation 37, 291, 586, 764,
agricultural, commons-based, 586,
human development, 37,
software patents and, 764,
wireless communications policy, 291

innovation economics 77-117, 88, 100, 100, 105, 114,
current production strategies, 88,
exclusive rights, 100, 100, 114,
production over computer networks, 105

inputs to production 81, 108, 135-148, 137, 140, 149, 214, 238, 281, 285, 296, 335, 355, 366, 397, 463, 531, 702,
existing information, 81, 108,
immersive entertainment, 149,
individual action as modality, 238,
large-audience programming, 355, 366, 463,
limited by mass media, 355,
NASA Clickworkers project, 137,
pricing, 214,
propaganda, 285, 397, 531,
systematically blocked by policy routers, 281, 296, 355, 702,
universal intake, 335, 355,
Wikipedia project, 140

instant messaging 647

Institute for One World Health 619

institutional ecology of digital environment 6, 16-17, 27-28, 31, 57-66, 120, 146, 208, 244, 309, 327, 340, 539, 611, 671, 674-807, 679, 685, 695, 803, 808, 824-827,
autonomy and, 309,
barriers to justice, 539,
emerging role of mass media, 327, 340,
enclosure movement, 671,
mapping, framework for, 685,
medical innovation and, 611,
path dependency, 679,
relationship with social producers, 244,
security-related policy, 146, 695, 803,
shift away from, 31,
stakes of information policy, 808,
structure of mass media, 327,
transaction costs, 120, 208

International HapMap Project 621

international harmonization 796-801

Internet 377, 385, 416, 423, 429, 437, 448, 473, 515, 528, 535, 654, 664, 698, 753, 759, 791,
as platform for human connection, 654,
authoritarian control over, 473,
centralization of, 423, 429,
coexisting with human community, 664,
democratizing effect of, 416,
democratizing effects of, 377,
globality of, effects on policy, 698,
linking as trespass, 791,
plasticity of culture, 528, 535,
power law distribution of site connections, 437,
strongly connected Web sites, 448,
technologies of, 385,
transparency of culture, 515,
Web addresses, 753,
Web browsers, 759

Internet Explorer browser 759-761

intrinsic motivations 187-193

Introna, Lucas 466

isolation 637-639

Jackson, Jesse 470

Jedi Saga, The 261-262

Jefferson, Richard 606

Joe Einstein model 91-92, 98, 564

Johanson, Jon 734

journalism, undermined by commercialism 355, 365-375

justice and human development 35-38, 537-628, 542, 550, 568, 820-821,
commons-based research, 568,
commons-based strategies, 550,
liberal theories of, 542

Kant, Immanuel 274

karma (Slashdot) 157

KaZaa 741-742

KDKA Pittsburgh 345, 346-347

Keillor, Garrison 441

Kick, Russ 203, 464

Know-How model 95

knowledge, defined 562

Koren, Niva Elkin 40

Kottke, Jason 455

Kraut, Robert 638, 644

Kumar, Ravi 455

Kymlicka, Will 508

laboratories, peer-produced 622-623

Lakhani, Karim 207

Lange, David 63

large-audience programming 355, 366-375, 463,
susceptibility of networked public sphere, 463

large-circulation press 342-343

large-grained goods 221

last mile (wireless) 709-714

layers of institutional ecology 676-677, 685-698, 691, 696, 767, 823-825,
content layer, 676, 691, 696, 767, 823,
physical layer, 691, 823,
see also logical layer of institutional ecology, 691

learning networks 91-92, 95, 218

Lemley, Mark 705, 779

Lerner, Josh 83, 207

Lessig, Lawrence (Larry) 40, 63, 434, 498, 501, 678, 705

liberal political theory 49-51, 502, 532,
cultural freedom, 502, 532

liberal societies 24-39, 26, 31, 35, 40, 331, 542,
autonomy, 26,
critical culture and social relations, 40,
design of public sphere, 331,
justice and human development, 35,
public sphere, shift from mass media, 31,
theories of justice, 542

licensing 126, 205, 346, 598, 778,
agricultural biotechnologies, 598,
GPL (General Public License), 126, 205,
radio, 346,
shrink-wrap (contractual enclosure), 778

limited intake of mass media 355-358

limited sharing networks 91-92, 98-99

limited-access common resources 122

Lin, Nan 189

linking on the Web 392, 437, 791,
as trespass, 791,
power law distribution of site connections, 437

Linux operating system 130

Litman, Jessica 63, 74, 501, 771

local clusters in network topology 34

logical layer of institutional ecology 171, 522, 671, 676, 691, 696, 726-766, 729, 737-752, 753, 759, 762, 782, 787, 796, 805, 823,
database protection, 787,
DMCA (Digital Millennium Copyright Act), 671, 729,
domain name system, 753,
free software policies, 762,
international harmonization, 796,
peer-to-peer networks, 171, 805,
recent changes, 696,
trademark dilutation, 522, 782,
Web browsers, 759

loneliness 637-639

loose affiliations 27-28, 631, 642, 649-653

Los Alamos model 91-92, 98

Lott, Trent 461, 470

lowest-common-denominator programming 355, 367-375, 463-464

Lucas, George 261-262

luck, justice and 543-545

lumpy goods 220-222

Luther, Martin 64

mailing lists (electronic) 387

management, changing relationships of 247-250

Mangabeira Unger, Roberto 266

manipulating perceptions of others 281-288, 285, 295, 298, 315-316, 397, 531,
influence exaction, 295, 298,
with propaganda, 285, 397, 531

Marconi 346

market reports, access to 561

market transactions 211-214

market-based information producers 83, 95, 120, 208, 244, 522, 529, 529, 613,
cultural change, transparency of, 522,
mass popular culture, 529, 529,
relationship with social producers, 244,
transaction costs, 120, 208,
universities as, 613,
without property protections, 83, 95

Marshall, Josh 398, 445, 470

Marx, Karl 274, 505

mass media 327, 327, 340, 352, 353, 353, 397,
as platform for public sphere, 327, 340, 352, 353,
basic critiques of, 353,
commercial platform for public sphere, 327,
corrective effects of network environment, 397,
structure of, 327

mass media, political freedom and 323-376, 331, 340, 353-375, 357,
commercial platform for public sphere, 340, 357,
design characteristics of liberal public sphere, 331

massive multiplayer games 149, 263

McChesney, Robert 352

McHenry, Robert 141

McLuhan, Marshall 45

McVeigh, Timothy (sailor) 652

Medecins Sans Frontieres 614

media concentration 297, 397, 423, 429-436,
corrective effects of network environment, 397

medicines, commons-based research on 609-623

medium of exchange 214-219

medium-grained goods 221

Meetup.com site 653

metamoderation (Slashdot) 159-160

methodological individualism 48

Mickey model 90-93

Microsoft Corporation 759, 794,
browser wars, 759,
sidewalk.com, 794

Milgram, Stanley 454

misfortune, justice and 543-545

MIT's Open Courseware Initiative 582

MMOGs (massive multiplayer online games) 149, 263

mobile phones 393, 651, 709,
open wireless networks, 709

modularity 200-203

Moglen, Eben 20, 112, 748

monetary constraints on information production 21-23, 73, 89, 120, 195, 216, 309,
control of, 195,
cost minimization and benefit maximization, 89,
fixed and initial costs, 216,
production costs as limiting, 309,
transaction costs, 120

money 89, 187, 214, 309, 420, 462,
as demotivator, 187,
as dominant factor, 420,
centralization of communications, 462,
cost minimization and benefit maximization, 89,
cost of production as limiting, 309,
crispness of currency exchange, 214

monitoring, authoritarian 426

monopoly 290, 345, 351, 371, 473, 611,
authoritarian control, 473,
breadth of programming under, 371,
medical research and innovation, 611,
radio broadcasting, 345, 351,
wired environment as, 290

Moore, Michael 360

motivation to produce 21-22, 183-194, 189, 200-203, 221, 223,
crowding out theory, 223,
cultural context, 189,
granularity of participation and, 221

Moulitas, Markos 398

MP3.com 739, 744

MSF (Medecins San Frontieres) 614

Mumford, Lewis 45

municipal broadband initiatives 715-717

Murdoch, Rupert 365

music industry 106-107, 171, 733, 747-750, 777,
digital sampling, 777,
DMCA violations, 733,
peer-to-peer networks and, 171

MyDD.com site 398

Napster 739-740,
see also peer-to-peer networks, 739

NASA Clickworkers 137-139

NBC (National Broadcasting Company) 351

Negroponte, Nicholas 430

neighborhood relations, strengthening of 631, 642-647

Nelson, W. R. 367

Netanel, Neil 425, 468

Netscape and browser wars 760

network topology 171, 179, 278, 279, 319, 392, 437, 448, 451, 455, 737, 791, 805,
autonomy and, 278, 279,
emergent ordered structure, 455,
linking as trespass, 791,
moderately linked sites, 451,
peer-to-peer networks, 171, 737, 805,
power law distribution of site connections, 437,
quoting on Web, 392,
repeater networks, 179,
strongly connected Web sites, 448

networked environmental policy 42,
See policy, 42

networked information economy 14-66, 24, 42, 57, 394,
democracy and liberalism, 24,
effects on public sphere, 394,
emergence of, 14,
institutional ecology, 57,
methodological choices, 42

networked public sphere 27, 31-34, 324, 327, 331, 340, 356, 376-484, 385, 403, 416, 425, 429, 437, 467, 469, 473, 481, 515, 631, 642, 649, 666, 686, 816-818,
authoritarian control, working around, 473,
basic communication tools, 385,
critiques that Internet democratizes, 416,
defined, 324,
Diebold Election Systems case study, 403, 469, 686,
future of, 481,
Internet as concentrated vs. chaotic, 429,
liberal, design characteristics of, 331,
loose affiliations, 27, 631, 642, 649,
mass-media platform for, 327, 340, 356,
see also social relations and norms networked society, 666, 816,
topology and connectivity of, 437,
transparency of Internet culture, 515,
watchdog functionality, 425, 467

networks sharing 174

news (as data) 561

newspapers 85, 341-343, 363,
market concentration, 363

Newton, Isaac 81

niche markets 112

NIH (National Institutes of Health) 579

Nissenbaum, Helen 466

No Electrical Theft (NET) Act 775

Noam, Eli 363, 430-431

nonexclusion-market production strategies 83-87, 94-99

nonmarket information producers 15-19, 48, 83-87, 91, 98, 194, 225, 244, 522, 613,
conditions for production, 194,
cultural change, transparency of, 522,
emergence of social production, 225,
relationship with nonmarket information producers (cont.) market-based businesses, 244,
role of, 48,
strategies for information production, 91, 98,
universities as, 613

nonmarket production, economics of 120, 182-250, 194, 208, 225,
emergence in digital networks, 225,
feasibility conditions, 194,
transaction costs, 120, 208

nonmarket strategies, effectiveness of 111-113

nonprofit medical research 619

nonrival goods 79-83

norms (social) 27, 41, 67, 120, 145-148, 157, 183, 208, 273, 421, 430, 459, 629-667, 631, 642, 649, 654, 659, 664, 818,
enforced norms with software, 659,
fragmentation of communication, 41, 421, 430, 459, 818,
Internet and human coexistence, 664,
Internet as platform for, 654,
loose affiliations, 27, 631, 642, 649,
motivation within, 183,
property, commons, and autonomy, 273,
Slashdot mechanisms for, 157,
software for, emergence of, 659,
technology-defined structure, 67,
thickening of preexisting relations, 631,
transaction costs, 120, 208,
working with social expectations, 649

Nozick, Robert 544

NSI (Network Solutions. Inc.) 754-755

number of behavioral options 286-288, 316

OAIster protocol 581

obscurity of some Web sites 446, 451-452

ODP (Open Directory Project) 154

older Web sites, obscurity of 446

on the shoulders of giants 81-83

One World Health 619

Open Archives Initiative 581

open commons 122

Open Courseware Initiative (MIT) 562, 582

Open Directory Project (ODP) 154

open wireless networks 709-714, 715, 805,
municipal broadband initiatives, 715,
security, 805

open-source software 19-20, 37, 96, 125-132, 202, 247, 573, 762, 803,
as competition to market-based business, 247,
commons-based welfare development, 573,
human development and justice, 37,
policy on, 762,
project modularity and granularity, 202,
security considerations, 803

opinion, public 337, 338, 358, 367, 373,
iconic representations of, 367, 373,
synthesis of, 337, 338, 358

opportunities created by social production 246-250

options, behavioral 286-288, 316

organization structure 200-207, 221, 543,
granularity, 200, 221,
justice and, 543,
modularity, 200

organizational clustering 446-453

OSTG (Open Source Technology Group) 156

Ostrom, Elinor 276

owners of mass media, power of 355, 359-365, 397,
corrective effects of network environment, 397

p2p networks 171-175, 737-752, 805,
security considerations, 805

Pantic, Drazen 393

Pareto, Vilfredo 441

participatory culture 249, 262, 531-536,
See also culture passive vs. active consumers, 249, 262

patents 682,
see proprietary rights path dependency, 682

peer production 19, 27, 73, 118-181, 194, 204, 208, 244, 403, 425, 467, 620, 631, 642, 649, 662, 813-815,
as platform for human connection, 662,
drug research and development, 620,
electronic voting machines (case study), 403,
feasibility conditions for social production, 194,
loose affiliations, 27, 631, 642, 649,
maintenance of cooperation, 204,
relationship with market-based business, 244,
sustainability of, 208,
watchdog functionality, 425, 467

peer review of scientific publications 578-580

peer-to-peer networks 171-175, 737-752, 805,
security considerations, 805

Pennock, David 451

perceptions of others, shaping 281-288, 285, 295, 298, 315-316, 397, 531,
influence exaction, 295, 298,
with propaganda, 285, 397, 531

perfect information 364

performance as means of communication 367

permission to communicate 294-295

personal computers 206, 220, 294, 718,
as shareable, lumpy goods, 220,
infrastructure ownership, 294,
policy on physical devises, 718

Pew studies 647, 745

pharmaceuticals, commons-based research on 609-623

Philadelphia, wireless initiatives in 716-717

physical capital for production 21-23, 73, 89, 120, 195, 216, 309, 676-677, 699-725,
control of, 195,
cost minimization and benefit maximization, 89,
fixed and initial costs, 216,
production costs as limiting, 309,
see also commons and social capital, 699,
transaction costs, 120

physical constraints on information production 15-17, 60-62

physical contact, diminishment of 638-639

physical layer of institutional ecology 691, 696, 823-825,
recent changes, 696

physical machinery and computers 206, 220, 294, 718,
as shareable, lumpy goods, 220,
infrastructure ownership, 294,
policy on physical devices, 718

Piore, Michael 266

PIPRA (Public Intellectual Property for Agriculture) 598-604

planned modularization 200-203

plasticity of Internet culture 528-530, 535

PLoS (Public Library of Science) 579

polarization 422, 461

policy 63-65, 146, 299, 339, 355, 403, 469, 473, 531, 539, 545, 568, 611, 671, 674-807, 679, 685, 686, 695, 698, 796, 803, 808,
authoritarian control, 473,
commons-based research, 568,
Diebold Election Systems case study, 403, 469, 686,
enclosure movement, 671,
global Internet and, 698,
independence from government control, 339, 355,
international harmonization, 796,
liberal theories of justice and, 545,
mapping institutional ecology, 685,
participatory culture, 531,
path dependency, 679,
pharmaceutical innovation, 611,
property-based, 299,
proprietary rights vs. justice, 539,
security-related, 695, 803,
security-related policy, 146,
stakes of, 808

policy layers 676-677, 685-698, 691, 696, 767, 823-825,
content layer, 691, 696, 767, 823,
physical layer, 691, 823

policy routers 281-284, 296, 298, 355-358, 702,
influence exaction, 296, 298

political concern, undermined by commercialism 355, 365-375

political freedom, mass media and 323-376, 327, 331, 340, 353,
commercial platform for public sphere, 327, 340,
criticisms, 353,
design characteristics of liberal public sphere, 331

political freedom, media and 356,
commercial platform for public sphere, 356

political freedom, public sphere and 376-484, 385, 416, 425, 429, 437, 467, 473, 481,
authoritarian control, working around, 473,
basic communication tools, 385,
critiques that Internet democratizes, 416,
future of, 481,
Internet as concentrated vs. chaotic, 429,
topology and connectivity of, 437,
watchdog functionality, 425, 467

Pool, Ithiel de Sola 682

popular culture, commercial production of 529-530

Post, Robert 269

Postel, Jon 754

Postman, Neil 341

Powell, Walter 218

power law distribution of Web connections 437-466, 448, 451,
strongly connected Web sites, 448,
uniform component of moderate connectivity, 451

power of mass media owners 355, 359-365, 397,
corrective effects of network environment, 397

preexisting relations, thickening of 631

press, commercial 341-343, 363

price compensation, as demotivator 187-190

pricing 214-219

Pringle, Peter 594

print media, commercial 341-343

private communications 326

privatization 289, 299, 594, 779,
agricultural biotechnologies, 594,
of communications and information systems, 289, 299,
ProCD v. Zeidenberg, 779

processing capacity 167-168, 175

processors. See computer producer surplus 297

producers professionalism, mass media 356

production capital 21-23, 73, 89, 120, 195, 216, 309,
control of, 195,
cost minimization and benefit maximization, 89,
fixed and initial costs, 216,
production costs as limiting, 309,
transaction costs, 120

production inputs 81, 108, 135-148, 140, 149, 214, 238, 281, 285, 296, 335, 355, 366, 397, 463, 531, 702,
existing information, 81, 108,
immersive entertainment, 149,
individual action as modality, 238,
large-audience programming, 355, 366, 463,
limited by mass media, 355,
pricing, 214,
propaganda, 285, 397, 531,
systematically blocked by policy routers, 281, 296, 355, 702,
universal intake, 335, 355,
Wikipedia project, 140

production inputs NASA Clickworkers project 137-139

production of information 15, 79, 88, 174, 194, 403, 815,
feasibility conditions for social production, 194,
networked public sphere capacity for, 403,
nonrivalry, 79, 174,
physical constraints on, 15,
strategies of, 88

Project Gutenberg 164-165, 264

propaganda 285, 397, 531,
manipulating culture, 531,
Stolen Honor documentary, 397

property ownership 59-64, 100, 121, 252-257, 273, 570,
autonomy and, 273,
control over, as asymmetric, 121,
effects of exclusive rights, 100,
trade policy, 570

proprietary rights 57-66, 88, 89, 100, 114-117, 171, 177, 290, 291, 294, 346, 348, 501, 522, 539, 556, 568, 578, 594, 598, 598, 611, 624, 671, 719, 729, 754, 764, 769, 778, 782, 787, 791, 796, 809,
agricultural biotechnologies, 594, 598,
commons-based research, 568,
contractual enclosure, 778,
copyright issues, 769,
cultural environment and, 501,
database protection, 787,
Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), 671, 729,
domain names, 754,
dominance of, overstated, 809,
effects of, 100,
enclosure movement, 671,
global welfare and research, 568, 624,
information-embedded goods and tools, 556,
infrastructure ownership, 294,
international harmonization, 796,
justice vs., 539,
medical and pharmaceutical innovation, 611,
models of, 89,
openness of personal computers, 719,
peer-to-peer networks and, 171,
radio patents, 346, 348,
scientific publication, 578,
software patents, 764,
strategies for information production, 88,
trademark dilutation, 522, 782,
trespass to chattels, 791,
university alliances, 598,
wireless communications policy, 291,
wireless networks, 177, 290

proprietary rights, inefficiency of 79-87, 100-104, 208-224, 221, 571, 810-813,
capacity reallocation, 221,
property protections, 571

public goods vs. nonrival goods 79-83

Public Library of Science (PLoS) 579

public opinion 338, 358, 367, 373,
iconic representations of, 367, 373,
synthesis of, 338, 358

public sphere 27, 31-34, 324-328, 327, 331, 340, 356-358, 376-484, 385, 403, 416, 425, 429, 437, 467, 469, 473, 481, 515, 631, 642, 649, 686, 817-818,
authoritarian control, working around, 473,
basic communication tools, 385,
critiques that Internet democratizes, 416,
Diebold Election Systems case study, 403, 469, 686,
future of, 481,
Internet as concentrated vs. chaotic, 429,
liberal, design characteristics of, 331,
loose affiliations, 27, 631, 642, 649,
mass media platform for, 327, 340,
topology and connectivity of, 437,
transparency of Internet culture, 515,
watchdog functionality, 425, 467

public sphere relationships 559, 577-583,
see social relations and norms publication, scientific, 559, 577

public-domain data 559-560

Putnum, Robert 641

quoting on Web 392

radio 341-354, 345, 346, 348, 363, 655, 682, 711-712,
as platform for human connection, 655,
as public sphere platform, 345,
market concentration, 363,
patents, 346, 348

Radio Act of 1927 352

Radio B92 475

radio telephony 349

raw data 559-560, 787,
database protection, 787

Rawls, John 338, 505, 544-545, 547

Raymond, Eric 132, 264, 464

Raz, Joseph 269

RCA (Radio Corporation of America) 346, 350-351

RCA strategy 91-92, 93

reallocating excess capacity 166-181, 221-224, 297, 620-622

reallocation 221-224, 291, 571,
property protections, 571,
wireless communications policy, 291

redistribution theory 544-545

referencing on the Web 392, 437, 791,
linking as trespass, 791,
power law distribution of Web site connections, 437

regional clusters in network topology 34

regulated commons 122

regulating information, efficiency of 79-87, 100-104, 208-224, 810-813

regulation by social norms 27, 41, 67, 120, 145-148, 157, 183, 208, 273, 421, 430, 459, 629-667, 631, 642, 649, 654, 659, 664, 818,
enforced norms with software, 659,
fragmentation of communication, 41, 421, 430, 459, 818,
Internet and human coexistence, 664,
Internet as platform for, 654,
loose affiliations, 27, 631, 642, 649,
motivation within, 183,
property, commons, and autonomy, 273,
Slashdot mechanisms for, 157,
software for, emergence of, 659,
technology-defined structure, 67,
thickening of preexisting relations, 631,
transaction costs, 120, 208,
working with social expectations, 649

Reichman, Jerome 789

relevance filtering 34, 135, 151-161, 152, 153, 154, 155, 204, 297, 314-322, 317, 336-337, 355, 358, 397, 423, 425, 426, 429, 462-466, 467,
Amazon, 152,
as distributed system, 317,
as public good, 34,
by authoritarian countries, 426,
capacity for, by mass media, 358,
concentration of mass-media power, 297, 397, 423, 429,
Google, 153,
Open Directory Project (ODP), 154,
power of mass media owners, 355, 358, 397,
Slashdot, 155, 204,
watchdog functionality, 425, 467

repeater networks 179-180

research, commons-based 568-583, 584, 609, 624-628,
food and agricultural innovation, 584,
medical and pharmaceutical innovation, 609

responsive communications 358

reuse of information 81-83, 108

Reynolds, Glenn 470

Rheingold, Howard 393, 472, 634-636

RIAA (Recording Industry Association of America) 733

right to read 771

Romantic Maximizer model 90-92

Rose, Carol 122

routers, controlling information flow with 281-284, 296, 298, 355-358, 702,
influence exaction, 296, 298

Rubin, Aviel 408

Sabel, Charles 123, 218, 266

Saltzer, Jerome 705

sampling, digital (music) 777

Samuelson, Pamela 63, 730

Sarnoff, David 351

SBG (Sinclair Broadcast Group) 360, 396-402

Scholarly Lawyers model 91-92, 94

scientific data, access to 559-560

scientific publication 559, 577,
commons-based welfare development, 577

scope of loose relations 27-28

scope of loose relationships 631

Scott, William 622

Second Life game environment 150, 263

security of context 273-278

Security Systems Standards and Certification Act 721

security-related policy 146, 695, 803-807,
vandalism on Wikipedia, 146

self-archiving of scientific publications 580-581

self-determinims, extrinsic motivation and 187

self-esteem, extrinsic motivation and 187

self-organization 40, 140, 154, 218, 525,
Open Directory Project, 154,
See clusters in network topology self-reflection, 40, 525,
self-identification as transaction cost, 218,
Wikipedia project, 140

services, software 575-576

SETI@home project 168-170

shaping perceptions of others 281-288, 285, 295, 298, 315-316, 397, 531,
influence exaction, 295, 298,
with propaganda, 285, 397, 531

Shapiro, Carl 558

shareable goods 220-222

sharing 91, 98, 118-181, 166-181, 221, 225, 239, 297, 613, 620, 709, 711,
capacity, 711,
emergence of social production, 225,
excess capacity, 166, 221, 297, 620,
limited sharing networks, 91, 98,
open wireless networks, 709,
radio capacity, 711,
technology dependence of, 239,
university patents, 613

Shirky, Clay 81, 320, 455, 660,
“shoulders of giants”, 81

shrink-wrap licenses 778-781

sidewalk.com 794

Simon, Herbert 441

Sinclair Broadcast Group (SBG) 360, 396-402

Skype utility 176, 741

Slashdot 155-161, 204-205

small-worlds effect 454-457

social action 55-56

social capital 189, 638-639, 640-653, 643, 649,
networked society, 649,
thickening of preexisting relations, 643

social clustering 446-453

social production, relationship with market-based business 244-250

social regulations and norms 145-148

social relations and norms 27, 41, 67, 120, 157, 183, 208, 273, 421, 430, 459, 629-667, 631, 642, 649, 654, 659, 664, 818,
enforced norms with software, 659,
fragmentation of communication, 41, 421, 430, 459, 818,
Internet and human coexistence, 664,
Internet as platform for, 654,
loose affiliations, 27, 631, 642, 649,
motivation within, 183,
property, commons, and autonomy, 273,
Slashdot mechanisms for, 157,
software for, emergence of, 659,
technology-defined structure, 67,
thickening of preexisting relations, 631,
transaction costs, 120, 208,
working with social expectations, 649

social software 659-663

social structure, defined by technology 67-76

social-democratic theories of justice 550-554

software 573, 659, 764,
commons-based welfare development, 573,
patents for, 764,
social, 659

software, open-source 19, 37, 96, 125-132, 202, 247, 573, 762, 803,
as competition to market based business, 247,
commons-based welfare development, 573,
human development and justice, 37,
policy on, 762,
project modularity and granularity, 202,
security considerations, 803

Solla Price, Derek (de Solla Price) 441

Solum, Lawrence 476-477

Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998 776, 798

specificity of price 214-219

Speilberg, Steven 732

stakes of information policy 808-829

Stallman, Richard 20, 129-131

standardizing creativity 214-219

Starr, Paul 45, 342-343, 682

state, role of 52-56

static Web pages 388-389

steiner, Peter 368

Stolen Honor documentary 397-402

storage capacity 175, 218,
transaction costs, 218

strategies for information production 88-99, 120, 208,
transaction costs, 120, 208

Strogatz, Steven 454

strongly connected Web sites 448-450

structure of mass media 327-330

structure of network 171, 179, 278, 279, 319, 392, 437, 448, 451, 455, 737, 791, 805,
autonomy and, 278, 279,
emergent ordered structure, 455,
linking as trespass, 791,
moderately linked sites, 451,
peer-to-peer networks, 171, 737, 805,
power law distribution of Web site connections, 437,
quoting on Web, 392,
repeater network, 179,
strongly connected Web sites, 448

structure of organizations 200-207, 221, 543,
granularity, 200, 221,
justice and, 543,
modularity, 200

structured production 200-207, 204, 221,
granularity, 200, 221,
maintenance of cooperation, 204,
modularity, 200

Sunstein, Cass 421-422

supercomputers 167-168

supplantation of real-world interaction 631, 642-647

supply-side effects of information production 95-96

sustainability of peer production 208-224

symmetric commons 122

Syngenta 597

synthesis of public opinion 338, 358,
See also accreditation, 358

TalkingPoints site 398

taste, changes in 249

Taylor, Fredrick 265

teaching materials 582

technology 44, 67, 111, 239, 385-393, 594, 659, 813,
agricultural, 594,
costs of, 813,
dependence on, for sharing, 239,
effectiveness of nonmarket strategies, 111,
enabling social sharing as production modality, 239,
role of, 44,
social software, 659,
social structure defined by, 67

telephone, as platform for human connection 657

television 262, 341, 355, 363, 366, 463, 638, 646,
culture of, 262,
Internet use vs., 638, 646,
large-audience programming, 355, 366, 463,
market concentration, 363

tendrils (Web topology) 448-450

term of copyright 776, 798-799

text distribution as platform for human connection 655-656

text messaging 393, 647, 651

textbooks 582

The Halloween Memo 245

The Memory Hole 203

thickening of preexisting relations 631, 642-647

thinness of online relations 638

Thurmond, Strom 470

Ticketmaster 794

Tirole, Jean 187, 207

Tirole, Jean,von Hippel, Eric 207

Titmuss, Richard 186, 343

Tocqueville, Alexis, de 342

toll broadcasting 349-351, 349-351

tools, information-embedded 558

Toomey, Jenny 245

topical clustering 446-453

topology, network 171, 179, 278, 279, 319, 392, 437, 448, 451, 455, 737, 791, 805,
autonomy and, 278, 279,
emergent ordered structure, 455,
linking as trespass, 791,
moderately linked sites, 451,
peer-to-peer networks, 171, 737, 805,
power law distribution of Web site connections, 437,
quoting on Web, 392,
repeater networks, 179,
strongly connected Web sites, 448

Torvalds, Linus 130, 205, 264

trade policy 568-572, 624-628, 798-799

trademark dilutation 522, 782-786

traditional model of communication 16, 29, 31, 57-66, 120, 146, 208, 244, 309, 327, 340, 356, 539, 611, 671, 674-807, 679, 685, 695, 803, 808, 825-826,
autonomy and, 309,
barriers to justice, 539,
emerging role of mass media, 327, 340, 356,
enclosure movement, 671,
mapping, framework for, 685,
medical innovation and, 611,
path dependency, 679,
relationship with social producers, 244,
security-related policy, 146, 695, 803,
shift away from, 31,
stakes of information policy, 808,
structure of mass media, 327,
transaction costs, 120, 208

transaction costs 120, 208-224

transfer of knowledge 562

transparency of free software 575

transparency of Internet culture 515-527

transport channel policy 701-717, 704, 709, 715,
broadband regulation, 704,
municipal broadband initiatives, 715,
open wireless networks, 709

trespass to chattels 791-795

troll filters (Slashdot) 157

trusted systems, computers as 721-722

tubes (Web topology) 448-450

UCC (Uniform Commercial Code) 780

UCITA (Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act) 778-781

Uhlir, Paul 789

universal intake 335-336, 355-358

university alliances 598-604, 613-618

university-owned-radio 347

unregulated commons 122

users as consumers 249-250

vacuity of online relations 638

Vaidhyanathan, Silva 501

value of online contact 638

vandalism on Wikipedia 146-148

variety of behavioral options 286-288, 316

Varmus, Harold 559

virtual communities 630-639,
see also social relations and norms, 630

visibility of mass media 356

von Hippel, Eric 20, 98, 250

voting, electronic 403-415, 469, 686-689

vouching for others, network of 653

Walter, Benjamin 530

Walzer, Michael 508

watchdog functionality 425, 467-472

Watts, Duncan 454

weak ties of online relations 638, 644

Web 387-391, 392, 437, 448, 463, 753, 759, 791,
backbone sites, 448, 463,
browser wars, 759,
domain name addresses, 753,
linking as trespass, 791,
power law distribution of Web site connections, 437,
quoting from other sites, 392

Weber, Steve 205

welfare 255, 297, 427, 542, 550, 555, 568,
commons-based research, 568,
commons-based strategies, 550,
digital divide, 427,
freedom from constraint, 297,
information-based advantages, 555,
liberal theories of justice, 542,
see also justice and human development, 542

WELL (Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link) 636

well-being 50

Wellman, Barry 45, 642, 644, 650

Westinghouse 346-347, 350-351

wet-lab science, peer production of 622-623

Wikibooks project 201

Wikipedia project 140-148, 205, 519,
Barbie doll content, 519

Wikis as social software 659-663

Williamson, Oliver 120

Winner, Langdon 45

wired communications 290, 704,
market structure of, 290,
policy on, 704

wireless communications 177-179, 289, 392, 437, 448, 463, 709, 715, 753, 759, 791,
backbone sites, 448, 463,
browser wars, 759,
domain name addresses, 753,
linking as trespass, 791,
municipal broadband initiatives, 715,
open networks, 709,
power law distribution of Web site connections, 437,
privatization vs. commons, 289,
quoting from other sites, 392

writable Web 388-391

written communications as platform for human connection 655-656

Zipf, George 441

Zittrain, Jonathan 477



License: All rights reserved. Subject to the exception immediately following, this book may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, including illustrations, in any form (beyond that copying permitted by Sections 107 and 108 of the U.S. Copyright Law and except by reviewers for the public press), without written permission from the publishers. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/ The author has made an online version of the book available under a Creative Commons Noncommercial Sharealike license; it can be accessed through the author's website at http://www.benkler.org.


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