Two Bits - The Cultural Significance of Free Software
Christopher M. Kelty (2008)

Bibliography

Janet Abbate, Brian Kahin "Standards Policy for Information Infrastructure", 1995, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Janet Abbate "Inventing the Internet", 1999, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Harold Abelson, Gerald J. Sussman "The Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs", 1985, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Atsushi Akera "Volunteerism and the Fruits of Collaboration: The IBM User Group SHARE", Technology and Culture, 2001-10, 710-736.

Atsushi Akera, Frederik Nebeker "From 0 to 1: An Authoritative History of Modern Computing", 2002, Oxford University Press, New York.

Benedict Anderson "Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism", 1983, Verso, London.

Jane Anderson, Kathy Bowery "The Imaginary Politics of Access to Knowledge", 2006-04, 20-23, Cleveland, Ohio.

A. Aneesh "Virtual Migration: The Programming of Globalization", 2006, Duke University Press, Durham, N.C..

Hannah Arendt "The Human Condition", 1958, University of Chicago Press.

Jack Balkin "Cultural Software: A Theory of Ideology", 1998, Yale University Press,, New Haven, Conn..

Richard Baraniuk, W. Joseph King "Connexions: Sharing Knowledge and Building Communities", Sloan-C Review: Perspectives in Quality Online Education, 4.9, 2005-09, [http://www.aln.org/publications/view/v4n9/coverv4n9.htm].

Richard Barbrook, Andy Cameron "The California Ideology", Science as Culture, 26, 1996, 44-72.

Thierry Bardini "Bootstrapping: Douglas Engelbart, Co-evolution and the Origins of Personal Computing", 2001, Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif..

John Perry Barlow "The Economy of Ideas", 2.3, 1994-03.

Andrew Barry "Political Machines: Governing a Technological Society", 2001, Athlone Press,, London.

Deborah Battaglia "For Those Who Are Not Afraid of the Future: Raëlian Clonehood in the Public Sphere", E.T. Culture: Anthropology in OuterspacesDeborah Battaglia, 2005, 149-79, Duke University Press, Durham, N.C..

Yochai Benkler "Coase’s Penguin, or Linux and the Nature of the Firm", Yale Law Journal, 112.3, 2002, 369-446.

Yochai Benkler "Sharing Nicely: On Shareable Goods and the Emergence of Sharing as a Modality of Economic Production", Yale Law Journal, 114.2, 2004, 273-358.

Yochai Benkler "The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom", 2006, Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn..

Thomas J. Jr. Bergin, Richard G. Jr. Gibson "History of Programming Languages 2", 1996, Association for Computing Machinery Press, New York.

Tim Berners-Lee, Mark Fischetti "Weaving the Web: The Original Design and Ultimate Destiny of the World Wide Web by Its Inventor", 1999, Harper San Francisco, San Francisco.

Mario. Biagioli "Galileo, Courtier: The Practice of Science in the Culture of Absolutism", 1993, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Pablo Boczkowski "Digitizing the News: Innovation in Online Newspapers", 2004, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

David Bollier "Silent Theft: The Private Plunder of Our Common Wealth", 2002, Routledge, New York.

George Bornstein, Ralph G. Williams "Palimpsest: Editorial Theory in the Humanities", 1993, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.

Paulina Borsook "Cyberselfish: A Critical Romp through the Terribly Libertarian Culture of High Tech", 2000, Public Affairs, New York.

Geoffrey C. Bowker, Susan Leigh Star "Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Consequences", 1999, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Geoffrey Bowker "Memory Practices in the Sciences", 2006, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

James Boyle "A Politics of Intellectual Property: Environmentalism for the Net?", Duke Law Journal, 47.1, 1997-10, 87-116.

James Boyle "Conservatives and Intellectual Property", Engage, 1, 2000-04, [http://www.law.duke.edu/boylesite/Federalist.htm].

James Boyle "The Second Enclosure Movement and the Construction of the Public Domain", 66.1-2 (winter-spring), “The Public Domain”James Boyle, 2003, 33-74.

James Boyle "Mertonianism Unbound? Imagining Free, Decentralized Access to Most Cultural and Scientific Material", Understanding Knowledge as a Common: From Theory to PracticeCharlotte Hess, Elinor Ostrom, 2006, 123-44, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., [http://www.james-boyle.com/mertonianism.pdf].

Gerald. Brock "The Second Information Revolution", 2003, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Frederick Brooks "The Mythical Man-month: Essays on Software Engineering", 1975, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass.

Michael Brown "Who Owns Native Culture?", 2003, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Michael Brown "Heritage as Property", Property in Question: Value Transformation in the Global EconomyKatherine Verdery, Caroline Humphrey, 2004, 49-68, Berg, Oxford.

Craig Calhoun "Habermas and the Public Sphere", 1992, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Michel Callon "Some Elements of a Sociology of Translation: Domestication of the Scallops and the Fishermen of St Brieuc Bay", Power, Action and Belief: A New Sociology of KnowledgeJohn Law, 1986, 196-233, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.

Michel Callon "The Laws of the Markets", 1998, Blackwell, London.

Michel Callon, Cécile Méadel, Vololona Rabeharisoa "The Economy of Qualities", Economy and Society, 31.2, 2002-05, 194-217.

Martin Campbell-Kelly, William Aspray "Computer: A History of the Information Machine", 1996, Basic Books, New York.

Martin Campbell-Kelly "From Airline Reservations to Sonic the Hedgehog: A History of the Software Industry", 2003, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Paul D. Carrington, Erika King "Law and the Wisconsin Idea", Journal of Legal Education, 47, 1997, 297.

Manuel Castells "The Rise of the Network Society", 1996, Blackwell, Cambridge, Mass..

Manuel Castells "The Internet Galaxy: Reflections on the Internet, Business and Society", 2001, Oxford University Press, New York.

Cornelius Castoriadis "The Imaginary Institution of Society", 1987, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Vinton G. Cerf, Robert Kahn "A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection", IEEE Transactions on Communications, 22.5, 1974-05, 637-48.

Owen Chadwick "The Early Reformation on the Continent", 2001, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Anita Chan "Coding Free Software, Coding Free States: Free Software Legislation and the Politics of Code in Peru", Anthropological Quarterly, 77.3 (summer), 2004, 531-45.

Roger Chartier "The Cultural Uses of Print in Early Modern France", 1988, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Roger Chartier "The Order of Books: Readers, Authors, and Libraries in Europe between the Fourteenth and Eighteenth Centuries", 1994, Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif..

Partha Chatterjee "A Response to Taylor’s ‘Modes of Civil Society.’", Public Culture, 3.1, 1990, 120-21.

Kim Christen "Gone Digital: Aboriginal Remix and the Cultural Commons", International Journal of Cultural Property, 12, 2005-08, 315-45.

Kim Christen "Tracking Properness: Repackaging Culture in a Remote Australian Town", Cultural Anthropology, 21.3, 2006-08, 416-46.

Clayton Christensen "The Innovator’s Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail", 1997, Harvard Business School Press, Boston.

Wendy Hui Kyong Chun "Control and Freedom: Power and Paranoia in the Age of Fiber Optics", 2006, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

David Clark "The Design Philosophy of the DARPA Internet Protocols 1988", Computer Communications: Architectures, Protocols, and StandardsWilliam Stallings, 1992, 54-62, IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif..

Julie Cohen, Lydia Pallas Loren, Ruth Gana Okediji, Maureen O’Rourke "Copyright in a Global Information Economy", 2001, Aspen Law and Business Publishers, Aspen, Colo..

E. Gabriella Coleman "The Political Agnosticism of Free and Open Source Software and the Inadvertent Politics of Contrast", Anthropological Quarterly, 77.3 (summer), 2004, 507-19.

E. Gabriella Coleman "The Social Construction of Freedom: Hackers, Ethics and the Liberal Tradition", 2005, University of Chicago.

Jean Comaroff, John Comaroff "Ethnography and the Historical Imagination", 1992, Westview, Boulder, Colo..

Douglas E. Comer "Operating System Design", 1984, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J..

Douglas E. Comer "Internetworking with TCP/IP", 2000, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J..

Rosemary Coombe, Andrew Herman "Rhetorical Virtues: Property, Speech, and the Commons on the World-Wide Web", Anthropological Quarterly, 77.3 (summer), 2004, 559-574.

Rosemary Coombe, Andrew Herman "Your Second Life? Goodwill and the Performativity of Intellectual Property in Online Digital Gaming", Cultural Studies, 20.2-3 (March-May), 2006-03, 184-210.

Patricia Crain "The Story of A: The Alphabetization of America from The New England Primer to The Scarlet Letter", 2000, Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif..

Terry A. Critchley, K. C. Batty "Open Systems: The Reality", 1993, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J..

Charis Cussins "Ontological Choreography: Agency through Objectification in Infertility Clinics", Social Studies of Science, 26.3, 1996, 575-610.

Lorraine Daston "Biographies of Scientific Objects", 2000, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Martin Davis "Engines of Logic: Mathematicians and the Origin of the Computer", 2001, W. W. Norton.

Manuel DeLanda "A Thousand Years of Non-linear History", 1997, Zone Books, New York.

Manuel DeLanda "Open Source: A Movement in Search of a Philosophy", Paper presented to the Institute for Advanced Study, 2001, Princeton, N.J., [http://www.cddc.vt.edu/host/delanda/pages/opensource.htm].

Manuel DeLanda "Intensive Science and Virtual Philosophy", 2002, Continuum Press, London.

Jodi Dean "Why the Net Is Not a Public Sphere", Constellations, 10.1, 2003-03.

John Dewey "The Public and Its Problems", 1927, Sage Books / Swallow Press, Chicago.

John Dewey "Liberalism and Social Action", 1935, G. P. Putnam’s Sons, New York.

John Dewey "Freedom and Culture", 1939, Prometheus Books, Amherst, N.Y..

Paul DiMaggio, Esther Hargittai, C. Celeste, S. Shafer "From Unequal Access to Differentiated Use: A Literature Review and Agenda for Research on Digital Inequality", Social InequalityKathryn Neckerman, 2004, 355-400, Russell Sage Foundation, New York.

Julian Dibbell "A Rape in Cyberspace", Village Voice, 38.51, 1993-12.

Julian Dibbell "Play Money: Or, How I Quit My Day Job and Made Millions Trading Virtual Loot", 2006., Basic Books, New York.

Chris, et al. Dibona "Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution", 1999, O’Reilly Press, Sebastopol, Calif..

Gary L. Downey "The Machine in Me: An Anthropologist Sits among Computer Engineers", 1998, Routledge, London.

Richard Doyle "Wetwares: Experiments in Postvital Living", 2003, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.

William Drake "The Internet Religious War", Telecommunications Policy, 17, 1993-12, 643-49.

Hubert Dreyfus "On the Internet", 2001, Routledge, London.

Joseph Dumit "Picturing Personhood: Brain Scans and Biomedical Identity", 2004, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Terry Eagleton "The Ideology of the Aesthetic", 1990, Blackwell, Cambridge, Mass..

Terry Eagleton "Ideology: An Introduction", 1991, Verso Books, London.

Paul N. Edwards "The Closed World: Computers and the Politics of Discourse in the Cold War", 1996, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Paul N. Edwards "Infrastructure and Modernity: Force, Time, and Social Organization in the History of Sociotechnical Systems", Modernity and TechnologyThomas Misa, Philip Brey, Andrew Feenberg, 2003, 185-225, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Elizabeth Eisenstein "The Printing Press as an Agent of Change: Communications and Cultural Transformations in Early Modern Europe", 1979, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

W. Faulkner "Dualisms, Hierarchies and Gender in Engineering", Social Studies of Science, 30.5, 2000, 759-92.

Lucien Febvre, Henri-Jean Martin "The Coming of the Book: The Impact of Printing 1450-1800", 1958, Verso, London.

Joseph Feller, Brian Fitzgerald, Scott A. Hissam, Karim R. Lakhani "Perspectives on Free and Open Source Software", 2005, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Paul Feyerabend "Against Method", 1993, Verso Books, London.

Roy T. Fielding "Shared Leadership in the Apache Project", Communications of the ACM, 42.4, 1999-04, 42-43.

Franklin Fischer, M. Folded "Spindled, and Mutilated", 1983, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Michael M. J. Fischer "Worlding Cyberspace", Critical Anthropology NowGeorge Marcus, 1999, 245-304, School for Advanced Research Press, Santa Fe, N.M..

Michael M. J. Fischer "Emergent Forms of Life and the Anthropological Voice", 2003, Duke University Press, Durham, N.C..

Michael M. J. Fischer "Culture and Cultural Analysis as Experimental Systems", Cultural Anthropology, 22.1, 2007-02, 1-65.

Patrice Flichy "The Internet Imaginaire", 2007, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Kim Fortun "Advocating Bhopal: Environmentalism, Disaster, New Global Orders", 2003, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Kim Fortun, Mike Fortun "Scientific Imaginaries and Ethical Plateaus in Contemporary U.S. Toxicology", American Anthropologist, 107.1, 2005, 43-54.

Kim Fortun "Figuring Out Ethnography", Fieldwork Isn’t What It Used to BeGeorge Marcus, James Faubion, , University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Michel Foucault "What Is an Author?", The Foucault ReaderP. Rabinow, 1984, 101-20, Pantheon Books, New York.

Michel Foucault "What Is Enlightenment?", EthicsPaul Rabinow, 1997, 303-17, New Press, New York.

Michel Foucault "La naissance de la biopolitique: Cours au Collège de France (1978-1979)", 2004, Gallimard / Le Seuil, Paris.

Carla Freeman "High Tech and High Heels in the Global Economy", 2000, Duke University Press, Durham, N.C..

Jo Freeman, Victoria Johnson "Waves of Protest: Social Movements since the Sixties", 1999, Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham, Md..

Peter Galison "How Experiments End", 1987, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Peter Galison "Image and Logic: The Material Culture of Microphysics", 1997, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Alexander Galloway "Protocol, or How Control Exists after Decentralization", 2004, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Mike Gancarz "The Unix Philosophy", 1994, Digital Press, Boston.

Mike Gancarz "Linux and the UNIX Philosophy", 2003, Digital Press, Boston.

Dilip Gaonkar "Toward New Imaginaries: An Introduction", Public Culture, 14.1, 2002, 1-19.

Clifford Geertz "Ideology as a Cultural System", The Interpretation of Cultures, 1973, 193-233, Basic Books, New York.

Luther P. Gerlach, Virginia H. Hine "People, Power, Change: Movements of Social Transformation", 1970, Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis.

Rishab Ayer Ghosh "Cooking Pot Markets: An Economic Model for the Trade in Free Goods", First Monday, 3.3, 1998, [http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue3_3/ghosh/].

Tarleton Gillespie "Engineering a Principle: ‘End to End’ in the Design of the Internet", Social Studies of Science, 36.3, 2006, 427-57.

Alex Golub "Copyright and Taboo", Anthropological Quarterly, 77.3, 2004, 521-30.

Pamela Gray "Open Systems: A Business Strategy for the 1990s", 1991, McGraw-Hill, London.

Ellen Green, Allison Adam "Virtual Gender: Technology, Consumption and Identity", 2001, Routledge, London.

Ian Green "The Christian’s ABCs: Catechisms and Catechizing in England c1530-1740", 1996, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Ian Green "Print and Protestantism in Early Modern England", 2000, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Sarah Green, Penny Harvey, Hannah Knox "Scales of Place and Networks: An Ethnography of the Imperative to Connect through Information and Communication Technologies", 46.5, 2005-12, 805-26, Current Anthropology.

David Alan Grier, Mary Campbell "A Social History of Bitnet and Listserv 1985-1991", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing (April-June), 2000-04, 32-41.

David Alan Grier "When Computers Were Human", 2005, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Keith Grint, Rosalind Gill "The Gender-Technology Relation: Contemporary Theory and Research", 1995, Taylor and Francis, London.

Jürgen Habermas "The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society", 1991, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Katie Hafner "Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet", 1998, Simon and Schuster, New York.

Jim Hamerly, Tom PaquinSusan Walton "Freeing the Source", Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source RevolutionChris Dibona, 1999, 197-206, O’Reilly Press, Sebastopol, Calif..

Garrett Hardin "The Tragedy of the Commons", Science, 162, 1968, 1, 243-48.

Ulf Hashagen "History of Computing - Software Issues"Reinhard Keil-Slawik, Arthur Norberg, 2002, Springer Verlag, Berlin.

Michael Hauben, Rhonda Hauben "Netizens: On the History and Impact of Usenet and the Internet", 1997, IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif..

Marc Hauser "Moral Minds: How Nature Designed Our Universal Sense of Right and Wrong", 2006, Ecco Press, New York.

Cori Hayden "When Nature Goes Public: The Making and Unmaking of Bioprospecting in Mexico", 2003, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Friedrich A. Hayek "Law, Legislation and Liberty", Vol. 1, Rules and Order, 1970, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Stefan Helmreich "Silicon Second Nature: Culturing Artificial Life in a Digital World", 1998, University of California Press, Berkeley.

Susan C. Herring "Gender and Democracy in Computer-Mediated Communication", Computerization and Controversy: Value Conflicts and Social ChoicesRob Kling, Charles Dunlop, 1995, 476-89, Academic Press, Orlando.

Charlotte Hess, Elinor Ostrom "Understanding Knowledge as a Common: From Theory to Practice", 2006, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Pekka Himanen "The Hacker Ethic and the Spirit of the Information Age", 2001, Random House, New York.

Christine Hine "Virtual Ethnography", 2000, Sage, London.

Douglas Holmes, George Marcus "Cultures of Expertise and the Manage¬ment of Globalization: Toward the Re-Functioning of Ethnography", Global Assemblages: Technology, Politics, and Ethics as Anthropological ProblemsOng AiwaStephen J. Collier, 2005, 235-52, Blackwell, Boston.

Oliver Wendell Holmes "The Path of Law", Harvard Law Review, 10, 1897, 457.

Patrick D. Hopkins "Sex/Machine: Readings in Culture, Gender and Technology", 1998, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.

Bernardo A. Huberman "The Ecology of Computation", 1988, North-Holland, Amsterdam.

Julian Huxley "New Bottles for New Wine: Essays", 1957, Harper, New York.

Peter Jaszi, Martha Woodmansee "The Construction of Authorship: Textual Appropriation in Law and Literature", 1994, Duke University Press, Durham, N.C..

Adrian Johns "The Nature of the Book: Print and Knowledge in the Making", 1998, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Neils Jorgensen "Putting It All in the Trunk: Incremental Software Development in the FreeBSD Open Source Project", Information Systems Journal, 11.4, 2001, 321-36.

Neils Jorgensen "Incremental and Decentralized Integration in FreeBSD", Perspectives on Free and Open Source SoftwareFeller et al., 2004, 227-44, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Robert et al. Kahn "The Evolution of the Internet as a Global Information System", International Information and Libraries Review, 29, 1997, 129-51.

Robert Kahn, Vint Cerf "A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication", IEEE Transactions on Communications Com, 22.5, 1974-05, 637-44.

Peterr Keating, Alberto Cambrosio "Biomedical Platforms: Realigning the Normal and the Pathological in Late-twentieth-century Medicine", 2003, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Christopher Kelty "Culture’s Open Sources", Anthropological Quarterly, 77.3 (summer), 2004, 499-506, [http://aq.gwu.edu/archive/table_summer04.htm].

Christopher Kelty "Punt to Culture", Anthropological Quarterly, 77.3 (summer), 2004, 547-58.

Lori Kendall "‘Oh No! I’m a NERD!’ Hegemonic Masculinity on an Online Forum", Gender and Society, 14.2, 2000, 256-74.

Brian William Keves "Open Systems Formal Evaluation Process", Paper presented at the USENIX Association Proceedings of the Seventh Systems Administration Conference (LISA VII), 1993-11-1, Monterey, California.

Tracy Kidder "The Soul of a New Machine", 1981, Little, Brown, Boston.

Gill Kirkup, Linda Janes, Kath Woodward, Fiona Hovenden "The Gendered Cyborg: A Reader", 2000, Routledge, London.

Friedrich Kittler "Discourse Networks 1800/1900", 1985;, Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif..

Friedrich Kittler "Gramophone, Film, Typewriter", 1986, Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif..

Rob Kling "Computerization and Controversy: Value Conflicts and Social Choices", 1996, Academic Press, San Diego.

Donald Knuth "The Art of Computer Programming", 1997, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass..

Robert Kohler "Lords of the Fly: Drosophila Genetics and the Experimental Life", 1994, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Ernesto Laclau, Chantal Mouffe "Hegemony and Socialist Strategy", 1985, Verso, London.

Hannah Landecker "Culturing Life: How Cells Became Technologies", 2007, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Bruno Latour "Science in Action: How to Follow Scientists and Engineers through Society", 1987, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Bruno Latour "Drawing Things Together", Representation in Scientific PracticeMichael Lynch, Steve Woolgar, 1990, 19-68, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Bruno Latour "Pandora’s Hope: Essays on the Reality of Science Studies", 1999, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Bruno Latour "What Rules of Method for the New Socio-scientific Experiments", Experimental Cultures: Configurations between Science, Art and Technology 1830-1950, Conference Proceedings, 2001, 123, Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, Berlin.

Bruno Latour, Peter Weibel "Making Things Public: Atmospheres of Democracy", 2005, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Bruno Latour "Re-assembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network Theory", 2005, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

John Law "Technology and Heterogeneous Engineering: The Case of Portuguese Expansion.", The Social Construction of Technological Systems: New Directions in the Sociology and History of TechnologyW. E. Bijker, T. P. Hughes, T. J. Pinch, 1987, 111-134, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

John Law, John Hassard "Actor Network Theory and After", 1999, Blackwell, Malden, Mass..

John Law "Aircraft Stories: Decentering the Object in Technoscience", 2002, Duke University Press, Durham, N.C..

James Leach, Dawn Nafus, Berbard Krieger "Gender: Integrated Report of Findings. Free/Libre and Open Source Software", Policy Support (FLOSSPOLS), D 16, 2006, [http://www.jamesleach.net/downloads/FLOSSPOLS-D16-Gender_Integrated_Report_of_Findings.pdf].

J. A. N. Lee, R. M. Fano, A. L. Scherr, F. J. Corbato, V. A. Vyssotsky "Project MAC", Annals of the History of Computing, 14.2, 1992, 9-42.

Josh Lerner, Jean Tirole "Some Simple Economics of Open Source", Industrial Economics, 50.2 (June), 2002-06, 197-234.

Lawrence Lessig "The New Chicago School", Legal Studies, 27.2, 1998, 661-91.

Lawrence Lessig "Code and Other Laws of Cyber Space", 1999, Basic Books, New York.

Lawrence Lessig "The Future of Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in a Connected World", 2001, Random House, New York.

Lawrence Lessig "Free Culture: The Nature and Future of Creativity", 2003, Penguin, New York.

Lawrence Lessig "Code: Version 2.0", 2006, Basic Books, New York.

Steven Levy "Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution", 1984, Basic Books, New York.

Don Libes, Sandy Ressler "Life with UNIX: A Guide for Everyone", 1989, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J..

Jennifer Light "When Computers Were Women", Technology and Culture, 40.3 (July), 1999-07, 455-483.

John Lions "Lions’ Commentary on UNIX 6th Edition with Source Code", 1977, Peer to Peer Communications, San Jose.

Walter Lippmann "The Phantom Public", 1927, Macmillan, New York.

Jessica Litman "Digital Copyright", 2001, Prometheus Books, New York.

Alan Liu "The Laws of Cool: Knowledge Work and the Culture of Information", 2004, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Adrian MacKenzie "Cutting Code: Software and Sociality. Digital Formations Series", 2005, Peter Lang, New York.

Donald A. MacKenzie "Mechanizing Proof: Computing, Risk, and Trust", 2001, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Michael Mahoney "The Roots of Software Engineering", CWI Quarterly, 3.4, 1990, 325-34.

Michael Mahoney "The Structures of Computation", The First Computers: History and ArchitecturesRaul Rojas, Ulf Hashagen, 2000, 17-32, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Michael Mahoney "In Our Own Image: Creating the Computer", The Changing Image of the SciencesIda Stamhuis, Teun Koetsier, Kees de Pater, 2002, 9-28, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

Michael Mahoney "Finding a History for Software Engineering", Annals of the History of Computing, 26.1, 2004, 8-19.

Michael Mahoney "The Histories of Computing(s)", Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, 30.2, 2005, 119-35.

Carl Malamud "Exploring the Internet: A Technical Travelogue", 1992, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J..

Karl Mannheim "Ideology and Utopia: Introduction to the Sociology of Knowledge", 1946, Harcourt and Brace, New York.

George Marcus, Michael M. J. Fischer "Anthropology as Cultural Critique: An Experimental Moment in the Human Sciences", 1986, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

George Marcus, James Clifford "Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography", 1986, University of California Press, Berkeley.

George Marcus "Ethnography through Thick and Thin", 1998, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Janer Margolis, Allen Fisher "Unlocking the Clubhouse: Women in Computing", 2002, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

James Martin "Viewdata and the Information Society", 1982, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J..

Peter Matheson "The Imaginative World of the Reformation", 2000, T and T Clark, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Regis McKenna "Who’s Afraid of Big Blue? How Companies Are Challenging IBM—and Winning", 1989, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass..

M. Kirk McKusick "Twenty Years of Berkeley Unix: From AT&T-owned to Freely Redistributable", Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source RevolutionChris et al. Dibona, 1999, 31-46, O’Reilly Press, ACM Sebastopol, Calif..

Marshall McLuhan "Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man", 1964, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Marshall McLuhan "The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man", 1966, Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Robert Merges, Peter Menell, Mark Lemley "Intellectual Property in the New Technological Age", 2003, Aspen Publishers, New York.

Robert Merton "The Normative Structure of Science", The Sociology of Science: Theoretical and Empirical Investigations, 1973, 267-80, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Daniel Miller, Don Slater "The Internet: An Ethnography", 2000, Berg, Oxford.

Thomas Misa, Philip Brey, Andrew' Feenberg "Modernity and Technology", 2003, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Audris Mockus, Roy T. Fielding, James Herbsleb "Two Case Studies of Open Source Software Development: Apache and Mozilla", ACM Transactions in Software Engineering and Methodology, 11.3, 2002, 309-46.

Annemarie Mol "The Body Multiple: Ontology in Medical Practice", 2002, Duke University Press, Durham, N.C..

Glyn Moody "Rebel Code: Inside Linux and the Open Source Revolution", 2001, Perseus, Cambridge, Mass..

Calvin Mooers "Computer Software and Copyright", Computer Surveys, 7.1 (March), 1975-03, 45-72.

Milton Mueller "Ruling the Root: Internet Governance and the Taming of Cyberspace", 2004, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

John Naughton "A Brief History of the Future: From Radio Days to Internet Years in a Lifetime", 2000, Overlook Press, Woodstock, N.Y..

David Noble "Digital Diploma Mills: The Automation of Higher Education", 3.1, 1998-01-05, [http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue3_1/].

Arthur L. Norberg, Judy O’Neill "A History of the Information Techniques Processing Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency", 1992, Charles Babbage Institute, Minneapolis.

Arthur L. Norberg, Judy O’Neill "Transforming Computer Technology: Information Processing for the Pentagon, 1962-1986", 1996, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Walter Ong "Ramus, Method, and the Decay of Dialogue: From the Art of Discourse to the Art of Reason", 1983, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Elinor Ostrom "Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action", 1991, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Bruce Perens "The Open Source Definition", Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution, Dibona et al., 1999, 171-188, O’Reilly Press, Sebastopol, Calif., [http://perens.com/OSD.html http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/opensources/book/perens.html].

Bryan Pfaffenberger "‘A Standing Wave in the Web of our Communications’: USENet and the Socio-technical Construction of Cyberspace Values", From Usenet to CoWebs: Interacting with Social Information SpacesChristopher Lueg, Danyel Fisher, 2003, 20-43, Springer, London.

Paul Rabinow "Essays on the Anthropology of Reason", 1997, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Paul Rabinow "Anthropos Today: Reflections on Modern Equipment", 2003, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Matt Ratto "The Pressure of Openness: The Hybrid work of Linux Free/Open Source Kernel Developers", 2003, San Diego.

Matt Ratto "Embedded Technical Expression: Code and the Leveraging of Functionality", Information Society, 21.3 (July), 2005-07, 205-13.

Eric S Raymond "The New Hackers’ Dictionary", 1996, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Eric S Raymond "The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary", 2001, 79-135, O’Reilly Press, Sebastopol, Calif..

Eric S Raymond "The Art of UNIX Programming", 2004, Addison-Wesley, Boston.

Hans-Jörg Rheinberger "Towards a History of Epistemic Things: Synthesizing Proteins in the Test Tube", 1997, Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif..

Howard Rheingold "The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier", 1993, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Paul Ricoeur "Lectures on Ideology and Utopia", 1986, Columbia University Press, New York.

Annelise Riles "Real Time: Unwinding Technocratic and Anthropological Knowledge", American Ethnologist, 31.3 (August), 2004-08, 392-405.

Dennis Ritchie "The UNIX Time-Sharing System: A Retrospective", Bell System Technical Journal, 57.6, pt. 2 (July-August), 1978-07, [http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/retroindex.html].

Mark Rose "Authors and Owners: The Invention of Copyright", 1995, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Peter Salus "A Quarter Century of UNIX", 1994, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass..

Peter Salus "Casting the Net: From ARPANET to Internet and Beyond", 1995, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass..

Susanne K. Schmidt, Raymund Werle "Coordinating Technology: Studies in the International Standardization of Telecommunications", 1998, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Stephen Segaller "Nerds 2.0.1: A Brief History of the Internet", 1998, TV Books, New York.

Maha Shaikh, Tony Cornford "Version Management Tools: CVS to BK in the Linux Kernel", 2003-05-03, Portland, Oregon.

Steven Shapin, Simon Schaffer "Leviathan and the Air Pump: Hobbes, Boyle and the Experimental Life", 1985, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Steven Shapin "The Social History of Truth: Civility and Science in Seventeenth Century England", 1994, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Adam Smith "The Theory of Moral Sentiments", 2002, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Paul K. St. Amour "The Copywrights: Intellectual Property and the Literary Imagination", 2003, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y..

William Stallings "Data and Computer Communications", 1985, Macmillan, London.

Richard Stallman "The GNU Manifesto", Dr. Dobb’s, 10.3 (March), 1985-03, 30-35.

Susan Leigh Star "The Cultures of Computing", 1995, Blackwell, Malden, Mass..

Susan Leigh Star, Karen Ruhleder "Steps towards an Ecology of Infrastructure: Complex Problems in Design and Access for Large-scale Collaborative Systems", Information Systems Research 7, 1996, 111-33.

Neal Stephenson "In the Beginning Was the Command Line", 1999, Avon / Perennial, New York.

Carl Sunshine "Computer Network Architectures and Protocols", 1989, Plenum Press, New York.

Shigeru Takahashi "The Rise and Fall of the Plug Compatible Manufacturers", 2005, 4-16.

Andrew Tanenbaum "Computer Networks", 1981, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J..

Andrew Tanenbaum "Operating Systems: Design and Implementation", 1987, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J..

Andrew Tanenbaum "The UNIX Marketplace in 1987: Life, the UNIverse and Everything", Proceedings of the Summer 1987 USENIX Conference, 1987, USENIX, Phoenix, Ariz..

Charles Taylor "Sources of the Self: The Making of the Modern Identity", 1989, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Charles Taylor "Modes of Civil Society", Public Culture, 1990, 95-132.

Charles Taylor "Multiculturalism and the Politics of Recognition", 1992, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J..

Charles Taylor "Modern Social Imaginaries", 2004, Duke University Press, Durham, N.C..

Charis Thompson "Making Parents: The Ontological Choreography of Reproductive Technologies", 2005, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie "The UNIX Time-Sharing System", 17.7 (July), 1974, 365-75.

Walter F Tichy "RCS: A System for Version Control", Software: Practice and Experience, 15.7 (July), 1985, 637-54.

Linus Torvalds, David Diamond "Just for Fun: The Story of an Accidental Revolutionary", 2002, HarperCollins, New York.

Ilkka Tuomi "Networks of Innovation: Change and Meaning in the Age of the Internet", 2002, Oxford University Press, New York.

Alan Turing "On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Ent-scheidungsproblem", 2.1, 1937, 230.

Sherry Turkle "The Second Self: Computers and the Human Spirit", 1984, New York: Simon and Schuster.

Sherry Turkle "Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet", 1995, Simon and Schuster, New York.

Fred Turner "Where the Counterculture Met the New Economy", Technology and Culture, 46.3 (July), 2005-07, 485-512.

Fred Turner "From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism", 2006, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Ellen Ullman "Close to the Machine: Technophilia and Its Discontents", 1997, City Lights, San Francisco.

Ellen Ullman "The Bug: A Novel", 2003, Nan A. Talese, New York.

Siva Vaidhyanathan "Copyrights and Copywrongs; The Rise of Intellectual Property and How It Threatens Creativity", 2001, New York University Press, New York.

Greg R. Vetter "The Collaborative Integrity of Open-Source Software", Utah Law Review, 2004.2, 2004, 563-700.

Greg R. Vetter "‘Infectious Open Source Software: Spreading Incentives or Promoting Resistance?", Rutgers Law Journal, 36.1 (fall), 2004, 53-162.

Vernor Vinge "The Coming Technological Singularity: How to Survive in the Post-Human Era", 1993, [http://www.rohan.sdsu.edu/faculty/vinge/misc/singularity.html].

Eric Von Hippel "Democratizing Innovation", 2005, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Judy Wajcman "Feminism Confronts Technology", 1991, Polity, Cambridge.

Judy Wajcman "Reflections on Gender and Technology Studies: In What State Is the Art?", Social Studies of Science, 30.3, 2000, 447-64.

Mitchell Waldrop "The Dream Machine: J. C. R. Licklider and the Revolution that Made Computing Personal", 2002, Viking, New York.

John Walsh, Todd Bayma "Computer Networks and Scientific Work", Social Studies of Science, 26.3 (August), 1996-08, 661-703.

Michael Warner "The Letters of the Republic: Publication and the Public Sphere in Eighteenth-century America", 1990, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Michael Warner "Publics and Counterpublics", Public Culture, 14.1, 2002, 49-90.

Michael Warner "Publics and Counterpublics", 2003, Zone Books, New York.

Peter Wayner "Free for All: How LINUX and the Free Software Movement Undercut the High-Tech Titans", 2000, Harper Business, New York.

Max Weber "Objectivity in the Social Sciences and Social Policy", The Methodology of the Social SciencesEdward Shils, Henry A. Finch, 1949, 50-112, Free Press, New York.

Steven Weber "The Success of Open Source", 2004, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass..

Richard L. Wexelblat "History of Programming Languages", 1981, Academic Press, New York.

Sam Williams "Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman’s Crusade for Free Software", 2002, O’Reilly Press, Sebastopol, Calif..

Fiona Wilson "Can’t Compute, Won’t Compute: Women’s Participation in the Culture of Computing", New Technology, Work and Employment, 18.2, 2003, 127-42.

Samuel M. Wilson, Leighton C. Peterson "The Anthropology of Online Communities", Annual Reviews of Anthropology, 31, 2002, 449-67.

Biao Xiang "Global Bodyshopping: An Indian Labor System in the Information Technology Industry", 2006, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Slavoj Žižek "Mapping Ideology", 1994, Verso, London.



License: Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike License, available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ or by mail from Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, Calif. 94305, U.S.A. "NonCommercial" as defined in this license specifically excludes any sale of this work or any portion thereof for money, even if sale does not result in a profit by the seller or if the sale is by a 501(c)(3) nonprofit or NGO.
Duke University Press gratefully acknowledges the support of HASTAC (Humanities, Arts, Science, and Technology Advanced Collaboratory), which provided funds to help support the electronic interface of this book.
Two Bits is accessible on the Web at twobits.net.


SiSU Spine (object numbering & object search) 2022