Two Bits - The Cultural Significance of Free Software
Christopher M. Kelty (2008)

Book Index

Abelson, Hal 87, 741, 761-763

Actor Network Theory 67, 341, 789

adaptability 40, 52, 618, 627, 642, 702, 708,
adaptation vs., 618,
as a form of critique, 618, 702,
planning vs., 618, 627, 642, 708

Adaptability 710,
planning vs., 710

affinity (of geeks) 38-39, 80-83, 102, 130, 183-185, 237, 289, 339-340, 538, 729, 865, 874-876

allegory, of Protestant Reformation 189-243, 288, 341, 433

American National Standards Institute (ANSI) 457-458

Amicas (corporation) 95-104, 134-136, 244-261, 435

anarchism 628, 889

Andreessen, Marc 300-303, 664

antitrust 160, 364, 473-475, 490

Apache (Free Software project) 52, 322, 334, 620-624, 622-625, 661-689, 676, 691-692, 805,
individual vs. group innovation, 676

Applied Data Research (corporation) 363

Arendt, Hannah 72

Arpanet (network) 353, 403-410, 483-501, 519, 609, 630, 664

artificial intelligence 263-269, 274

Artificial Intelligence Lab (AI Lab), at MIT 529-539

artificial Intelligence Lab (AI Lab), at MIT 608-614

AT&T 350-352, 370-384, 371, 401, 446, 447, 464-471, 477, 556, 561, 566, 569, 591, 636, 688, 711, 885,
Bell Laboratories, 371, 688, 711,
divestiture in, 591,
divestiture in 1984, 447,
version of EMACS, 561, 566, 569,
version of UNIX, 401, 446

attribution 779, 818, 829, 849,
copyright licenses and, 779, 829,
copyright licensing and, 818,
dissavowal of, 849

Authorship 814-843

authorship 229, 567, 601, 755, 798, 819,
moral rights of, 755,
ownership vs., 601, 819

availability 40, 442, 480, 506, 886,
open systems and, 40, 442, 480, 506,
reorientation of power knowledge and, 886

Bangalore 131-138

Baraniuk, Richard 721-757, 793, 865

Barlow, John Perry 137, 165, 775

Behlendorf, Brian 332-334, 665,
as head of Apache, 665

Bentham, Jeremy 522-523

Berkeley Systems Distribution (BSD) (version of UNIX) 334, 401-410, 459, 508, 646, 674, 691, 710-711,
FreeBSD, 646, 674, 691

Berkman Center for Internet and Society 762-763

Berlin 65, 78-80, 111-113, 129, 134, 183

Berners-Lee, Tim 308-309, 509, 663

Bitkeeper (Source Code Management software) 693-705

blogosphere, as recursive public 877

Bolt, Beranek, and Newman (BBN) 404

Bone, Jeff 152-178

Boyle, James 89, 751, 759-762, 769, 780-782

Brin, David 157

Brooks, Frederick 364

Brown, Glen Otis 775-785, 843, 845-868

Bruno, Giordano 492

BSD License 311, 313, 407-409

bugs 318, 666, 687, 708-713

Burris, C. Sidney 735

C (programming language) 350, 369

Calvinism 286

Cathedral and the Bazaar 63, 323, 327-330, 720

censorship 153, 159-160, 164-169

Cerf, Vinton 403, 497-499

Chari, Bharath 136

Clark, David 174, 178, 498

COBOL (programming language) 360

Coleman, Gabriella 517

collaboration 442, 460, 680, 830, 884,
competition vs., 442, 460, 884,
different meanings of, 680,
forking vs., 830

Commité Consultative de Information, Technologie et Télécommunications (CCITT) 489, 504

commons 57-59, 100, 729-730

communities 628, 743, 748, 812, 822, 823,
norms and, 812, 822, 823

comp.os.minix 640, 643, 646,
“Linux is obsolete” debate on, 646

Computer Corporation of America (CCA) 546-606, 591

Concurrent Versioning System (cvs) 318, 623, 686, 690, 693,
history of, 690,
Linux and, 693

Connexions project 23, 29, 41, 58-59, 62, 722-729, 731, 735, 737, 738, 740, 741, 744, 748, 759, 769, 779, 798, 798, 799, 801, 808, 810, 814, 816,
as Free Software project, 748,
as “factory of knowledge”, 738,
connection to Creative Commons, 759, 769,
history and genesis of, 731,
line between content and software, 808,
meaning of publication, 798,
model of learning, 744,
model of learning in, 737,
modules in, 737,
Open CourseWare, 741, 769,
relationship to education, 740,
relationship to hypertext, 779,
roles in, 810, 814, 816,
stages of producing a document in, 799, 801,
textbooks and, 735, 798

content 750-755

control, relationship to power 215, 218

CONTU report 594

coordination (component of Free Software) 52, 315-321, 616-619, 618, 626-635, 636, 648, 662, 666-716, 679, 697, 710, 728, 743, 748, 756, 813, 824,
individual virtuosity vs. hierarchical planning, 618, 648, 662, 679, 710,
modulations of, 697, 743, 748, 756, 813, 824,
of Linux vs. Minix, 636

copyleft licenses (component of Free Software) 147, 744, 748, 825,
derivative uses and, 825,
modulations of, 744, 748, 825

Copyleft licenses (component of Free Software) 310-314, 407, 513, 514-624, 524, 751, 762, 779, 830, 836, 848, 849, 887,
as hack of copyright law, 524,
commercial use and, 779,
Creative Commons version, 848,
derivative uses and, 779, 836, 849,
disavowal clause in, 849,
forking and, 830,
modulations of, 751, 762

Copyright 229-231, 524-525, 525, 539, 545, 586,
changes in 1976, 525, 539, 586,
changes in 1980, 539, 586,
infringement and software, 545,
legal definition of software and, 545,
requirement to register, 586,
rights granted by, 525,
software and copyrightability, 545

copyright 28-29, 391, 604, 765, 807, 815,
changes in 1976, 391,
requirement to register, 765,
specificity of media and, 807,
transfer of, 604,
works for hire, 815

copyright infringement 586, 600, 603,
legal threats and, 603,
redistribution of software as, 600

Copyright infringement 558, 561, 568, 569, 582,
EMACS controversy and, 558, 569,
infringement on own invention, 582,
legal threats and, 568,
permissions and, 561

Crain, Patricia 228-229

Creative Commons 23, 29, 41, 58-59, 62, 729-730, 759-785, 762, 765, 769, 778, 818-820, 848,
activism of, 765,
connection to Connexions, 759, 769,
marketing of, 778,
origin and history of, 762,
writing of licenses, 848

credit 815-820, 849-855, 888,
see also attribution, 849, 888

critique, Free Software as 618-619, 660, 702-705, 716

cultural significance 45-46, 727, 787, 878

culture 20, 115, 134, 723, 844, 856, 860,
as experimental system, 20,
Creative Commons version of, 856,
law vs., 860,
punting to, 844

Cygnus Solutions (corporation) 298, 332

debugging 638-643, 666, 681, 708,
patching vs., 666, 681, 708

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) 403-410, 496-497

Defense, Department of 496-507

Delanda, Manuel 520

design 245-247, 392-394, 533-534, 651, 653,
evolution, and, 653

Dewey, John 75, 241, 522, 716, 718

diff (software tool) 379-381, 400, 688, 711,
history of, 688

differentiation of software 352, 401, 412-413, 453-454, 677,
in Apache, 677,
see also forking and sharing source code, 677

Digital Equipment Corporation (corporation) 423-424, 487, 556-557,
DECNet, 487

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) 298

Digital signal processing (DSP) 722, 734, 793, 813

Disney, Walt 767

distance learning 740-742

distributed phenomena, ethnography of 65-71

Domain Name System (DNS) 156, 322

dotcom era 332-336

Doyle, Sean 93-99, 129, 165, 183, 219-225, 244-247, 256-261, 435

Dyson, Esther 165

editions, print vs. electronic 805-808,
see also versions, 805

Eisenstein, Elizabeth 795-796, 803

Eldred, Eric 761-764

EMACS (text editor) 211, 519-624, 527, 532, 541, 544, 558, 629, 645, 701, 754, 887,
controversy about, 541, 701, 887,
ersatz versions, 532, 541, 544,
legal status of, 558,
modularity and extensibility of, 527,
number of users, 645

EMACS commune 535-554, 555, 568-569

End User License Agreements (EULAs) 517

enlightenment 190-193, 238-241, 260-261, 751, 796

entrepreneurialism 102-106, 247-255, 889

ethnographic data 68, 519,
availability of, 68, 519,
mailing lists and, 519

ethnography 63-64, 79-80, 341-342

evil 219-225, 232-233, 309

Evil 435

experiment, collective technical 53-55, 293, 886-889

experimentation 522, 606, 620, 623-624, 714-716, 718, 726-727, 783-784, 832-833,
administrative reform as, 522,
see also modulations, 726

Extensible Mark-up Language (XML) 802-803, 833

Extropians 264

fair use 586-587, 595, 865

Feyerabend, Paul 259-260

figuring out 58-59, 62-63, 192, 340-342, 419, 451-452, 522, 705, 770-785, 789, 826-829, 835, 881

File Transfer Protocol (ftp) 639

finality 41-43, 789-846, 803, 810,
certainty and stability vs., 789,
fixity vs., 810,
in Wikipedia and Connexions, 803

Firefox 295, 319-320,
see also Netscape Navigator, 319

fixity 796-803, 810

folklore of Internet 164,
see also usable pasts, 164

forking 397-410, 677, 694, 827,
in Apache, 677,
in Connexions, 827,
in Linux, 694

FORTRAN (programming language) 355, 360

Foucault, Michel 193, 238-241

Free Documentation License (FDL) 754-755, 754-755

Free software 480,
components of, 480

Free Software 19-22, 20, 25, 45, 48, 55, 291-346, 292, 297, 338, 377, 617, 696, 720, 727, 794,
anthropology and, 720,
as experimental system, 20, 45, 292,
components of, 727,
modulations of, 55, 794,
nonfree tools and, 696,
open source vs., 20, 48, 297, 338, 617,
passim, 377,
relation to Internet, 25

Free Software Foundation 103, 297-298, 324, 328, 604-612, 614, 629, 644-645, 834-835,
cult status of, 629,
Linux and Apache vs., 614

FreeBSD 646, 674, 691

Freeware summit 323-328

fun, and development of Linux 623, 645-646

Fun, and development of Linux 697

futurology 262-282

Geeks 20-21, 190-196

geeks 27, 63, 77-83, 101-109, 106, 193, 240, 281, 288-289, 299-302, 341, 345, 501, 512, 609, 716, 772, 812,
as moderns, 193, 240, 281, 716,
hackers vs., 106,
self-representation, 63, 341

Geertz, Clifford 122-125

Gender 135

gender 280, 721

General Motors (GM) 431, 503

General Public License (GPL) 310-313, 514-624, 610, 629, 698, 754,
development of, 610,
passim, 698, 754

Gilmore, John 164-165

GNU (Gnu's Not Unix) 480, 544-584

GNU C Compiler (gcc) 202-208, 523, 629, 637

GNU Hurd (kernel) 629

GNU Manifesto 551-558, 583

goals, lack of in Free Software 618-619, 681-683

Goals, lack of in Free Software 791,
norms as, 791

Goody, Jack 795

Gosling, James 543-607, 712

GOSMACS (version of EMACS) 543-584, 601, 712

Grassmuck, Volker 113

Gropper, Adrian 93-99, 129, 247-255, 435

Grune, Dick 690

Gulhati, Ashish 174

Habermas, Jürgen 71-73, 117, 148

Hacker ethic 519-520, 570-572

hacker ethic 51, 606-615

hackers 106-109, 330-334, 519, 606, 618, 626-627,
curiosity and virtuosity of, 618,
hacks and, 519

Hahn, Eric 307, 323

Harthill, Rob 671-683

Hayden, Robert 107-109

Hayek, Friedrich 241, 286, 485

healthcare 248, 250,
allocation of, 250,
information technology in, 248

Hecker, Frank 306-307, 323

Hendricks, Brent 721-757, 793, 812, 815-829, 836, 865

hierarchy, in coordination 618-623, 648-658

Holmes, Oliver Wendell 847

Hopper, Grace 355

Housman, A. E. 821

httpd 622, 663-685

Huxley, Julian 265

Hypertext Transfer Mark-up Language (HTML) 663, 803

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (http) 222, 509, 663

ideology 119-125

implementation of software 349

Informatics (corporation) 363

information society 31, 70,
see also public sphere, 70

Infrastructure 184-188

infrastructure 104, 233-237, 417, 479-480, 613, 620, 631, 750, 797, 886,
of publishing, 750, 797

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 457-460, 473

institutional economics 780-782

Intel (corporation) 422-424, 476

intellectual property 193, 231, 233, 298, 305, 310, 328-329, 388-391, 407-409, 418, 436-442, 514-624, 567, 592, 595-615, 849, 884-887,
strategy and, 567, 592, 849

Intellectual property 196, 349

International Business Machines (IBM) 214, 349, 423-424, 459-461

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 489-493, 492-495, 883

International Telecommunications Union (ITU) 489-495

Internet 25-37, 36, 67-68, 78-83, 101, 115, 131, 139, 150, 152, 162-171, 164, 172-181, 489, 627, 882,
early development, 489, 627,
folklore and, 164,
geeks and, 101,
idea of order and, 115,
India and, 131,
public spheres and, 139,
relation to Free Software, 25, 627,
singularity of, 36, 150, 152, 882

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) 173-181, 507

Internet Society (ISOC) 178, 507

interoperability 418-439, 462, 480, 494-506

intervention, technology as 194, 247-289, 780, 811

Johns, Adrian 795-798

Joy, Bill 400-409, 432-433, 461, 528, 557, 712

Justice, Department of 301, 364

Kahn, Robert 403, 497

Kant, Immanuel 193, 238-239, 261, 520, 716

Katz, Lou 379-382

Keynes, John Maynard 485

Kittler, Friedrich 795

Labalme, Fen 564-572

lag, technological 256-258

LaTeX (typesetting language) 801

Latour, Bruno 796

legitimacy 30,
circulation of knowledge and, 30

legitimacy, circulation of knowledge and 878-884

Leitl, Eugene 152, 175, 274-282, 336

Lessig, Lawrence 168-170, 761-785, 767, 780, 861,
law and economics and, 780, 861,
style of presentations, 767

liberalism, classical 157

libertarianism 164-165, 328

licensing, of UNIX 371-377

Licklider, J. C. R. 403

Linux (Free Software project) 52, 209, 322, 335, 396, 511, 608, 619-627, 630, 649, 651, 684, 691, 693, 736, 805,
origins in Minix, 396, 630,
planning vs. adaptability in, 651,
process of decision making, 649,
Source Code Management tools and, 684,
VGER tree and, 693

Lions, John 386-396

LISP (programming language) 360, 599,
interpreter in EMACS, 599

Locke, John 157

Luther, Martin 196-211

mainframes 422-426

Malmud, Carl 491-492

Mannheim, Karl 122-123

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) 103, 608-614, 741,
open courseware and, 741

McCool, Rob 300, 622, 663-666

McGill, Scott 821

McIlroy, Douglas 370, 688

McKenna, Regis 439-440

McLuhan, Marshall 803

McVoy, Larry 694-705

meaning, regulation through law 861

MedCommons 100-102

mergers 462-464

Merton, Robert 791, 810, 890,
Mertonian norms, 791, 810, 890

Metcalfe's Law 157

Mickey Mouse 767

microcomputers 426-428

Microsoft 213, 221, 225, 229, 301, 309, 387, 409, 461, 476, 547, 709,
as Catholic Church, 213, 225,
Internet Explorer, 221, 225, 229, 301,
Windows operating system, 387, 409, 476,
Xenix (version of UNIX), 547

Mikro e.V. 112-113

Mill, John Stuart 157, 241

Miller, Dave 693

Minix (operating system) 394-396, 398-399, 621-622, 644,
goals of, 644

Minix (operating systems) 630-649

modernity 238-240, 838,
tradition and, 838

modifiability 38-44, 40-44, 41, 58-59, 441-442, 442, 480-485, 480-484, 508, 534, 592, 637-639, 652, 682, 710-713, 751-755, 773-779, 789, 824-827, 837, 887-891,
EMACS and, 534,
implications for finality, 41, 789,
modularity in software, 652, 682,
relation of different disciplines to, 837

modulation 55, 622, 721, 726, 743, 747, 773, 783, 871,
of Free Software, 55, 622, 721, 783, 871,
practices of, 726, 743, 747, 773

Monopoly 435

monopoly 160, 351, 364, 371, 417-418, 438-441, 460, 476

Montgomery, Warren 560, 591

Moody, Glyn 64, 694

Moore's Law 157

moral and technical order 79-82, 129-130, 148-150, 164, 173-174, 184, 188, 190, 194, 235, 273, 331, 342, 348, 384, 408-413, 417-420, 435-436, 452, 482, 511, 534-541, 631, 705, 730, 764, 771-772, 838, 865, 871, 884-889

Mosaic (web browser) 300-303, 509, 664

Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) 160

movement (component of Free Software) 48, 292-295, 322-346, 339, 624, 728-730, 833, 876,
function of, 339,
modulations of, 833, 876

Mozilla 222, 300-323

Mozilla Public License (MPL) 311-313

Multi-User Dungeons (MUDS) 628

Multics 369-370, 531

music 132-133, 182, 185, 804, 861-864, 875,
production, 804,
recursive public and, 875

Napster 27, 80-82, 149, 151-172, 173-181, 188, 193, 278, 420, 766

National Center for Super Computing Applications (NCSA) 300-303, 622, 664-666

Nesson, Charlie 775

Net neutrality 36

net.emacs (mailing list) 546-584

Netscape 47-48, 295-321, 330-331

Netscape Navigator 319-320

Netscape Navigator (application) 47, 295-321, 509

Netscape Public License (NPL) 311

Networks 482, 487,
as products, 487,
protools for, 482,
varieties of, 487

new httpd (mailing list) 665-689

norms 59, 168, 786-798, 790, 813, 825, 827, 835, 839-843, 841-845, 842, 843, 851, 858, 859,
academic, 813, 827, 851,
channeling by legal means, 843, 859,
coordination and, 825,
cultural, 835, 842, 858,
evolution and, 841,
existence of, 59, 790, 839,
practices and technology vs., 835

Novell 477

novelty, of Free Software 619, 704-705

Ong, Walter 795

ontology 383, 395, 412, 660,
of linux, 660,
of UNIX operating system, 383, 395, 412

Open access 21-23

open access 876,
recursive public and, 876

Open content licenses 755

Open CourseWare (OCW) 741-743, 769-771

Open Software Foundation (OSF) 452

Open Source 20, 48, 297, 324, 335, 478, 617, 736,
Free Software vs., 20, 48, 297, 335, 617,
inspiration for Connexions, 736,
“Open Source Definition”, 324

Open Source Initiative 325

Open Sources 334

Open Systems 47, 50, 112, 308-310, 414-513, 434, 447, 481, 519, 540, 612, 884-887,
intellectual property and, 434,
networks and, 481,
operating systems and, 447

Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) 353, 400, 419, 482,
as reference model, 419, 482,
TCP/IP, 353, 400

openness 47-50

Openness (component of Free Software) 419, 432, 476,
proprietary vs., 432, 476,
standardization and, 419

openness (component of Free Software) 412, 414-442, 418, 429, 432, 434, 466, 471, 476-486, 749-751, 751, 825,
closure vs., 434,
definition of, 432,
goals of, 429,
intellectual property and, 418,
modulations of, 749, 825,
proprietary vs., 466, 751,
standardization and, 471,
sustainability vs., 751

operating systems, history of 350-390

O’Reilly Press 323-324, 334

O’Reilly, Tim 323

packet-switching 496-497

participant observation 721, 783-784, 790-791, 848,
writing copyright licenses as, 848

Pascal (programming language) 400-402

patches (software) 649-652, 661, 666,
debugging vs., 666,
voting in software development and, 661

patents on software 586-587

pedagogy 348, 412, 480, 504, 630, 643, 729,
Minix and, 643,
network protocols and, 504,
operating systems and, 348, 412, 480, 630

peer production 617, 885

Perens, Bruce 313, 323, 701

perl (programming language) 54, 201, 323, 625

permission 817-826

planning 42-43, 180, 618-619, 710-712

polymaths 780, 811

Polymaths 234,
transhumanists vs., 234

portability, of operating systems 360-368, 446-450

POSIX (standard) 452, 457-458

power, relationship to control 215, 225,
see also reorientation of power and knowledge, 225

practices 41-44, 292, 338-342, 341, 518, 520, 586, 617, 726, 743, 748, 835, 872-874,
five components of Free Software, 292, 520, 617, 726, 743, 748, 872,
norms vs., 835,
opposed to legal changes, 586,
stories as, 341,
“archival hubris”, 341

Practices 29,
five components of Free Software, 29

pragmatism 259

Prentice Hall 639-640

printing press 795-797, 809

programming 175-176, 244-247, 350-361

programming languages 199-201, 350-396

progress 237, 266-271, 281-288

Progress 190-193

proliferation of software 351-352, 359-361, 412-413, 453-454, 531-532, 613, 885

proprietary systems 95, 371, 416, 422,
closed, 95,
lock-in and, 422,
open vs., 371, 416

Protestant Reformation 189-243, 433

protestant Reformation 160,
as usable past, 160

protocols 164, 177, 353, 400, 419, 482,
distinguished from standards and implementation, 353, 400,
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), 419, 482,
TCP/IP, 164, 177, 419, 482

public 23-29, 30-33, 115-130, 142, 144, 148, 181-188, 233, 835, 872-877,
autotelic and independent, 144, 148, 835,
see also recursive public, 872,
self-grounding of, 142

Public domain 549,
contrasted with free, 549

public domain 308, 351, 547, 765-769, 782, 818, 821,
Creative Commons licenses and, 818,
environmentalism and, 782,
literary texts in, 821,
meaning in EMACS controversy, 547

public sphere 25, 34, 38, 70, 115, 620, 879,
recursive public vs., 34, 38, 879,
theories of, 25, 70, 115, 620

publication 147-148, 161-163, 790, 798,
as notional event, 798,
transformation by Internet, 790

python (programming language) 201, 625

QED (text editor) 529

Raelians 264

Rand, Ayn 157

Raymond, Eric Steven 63-64, 297, 323, 325, 327-330, 334-335, 334-335, 338, 341, 344, 448, 626, 708, 720-724

RCS (software tool) 689-690,
see also Source Code Management tools, 689

Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) 152-153, 159-160, 174, 766

recursion, definition of 84-89

recursive public 23, 32, 35, 77-89, 82, 88, 149, 154, 168, 174, 233, 312, 342, 351, 374, 393-399, 506-509, 520, 538, 619-620, 660, 685, 702, 716, 727-730, 729, 787-789, 812, 835, 865,
definition of, 23, 32,
examples of, 154, 729,
layers of, 35, 82, 88, 149, 154, 168, 174, 685, 702,
precursors of, 351, 374

Red Hat (corporation) 332

Redd, Kross 777

redistribution of software 600-604

Reedstrom, Ross 736, 742, 793, 836

Reformation vs. revolution 215

reformation vs. revolution 196, 253

regulation 168, 489,
Internet, 168,
telecommunications, 489

religion 248

Religion 135-136

religious wars 196-201, 482-485

reorientation of power and knowledge 20-21, 30-44, 182, 346, 441, 501, 520, 716, 782, 788-790, 795, 806-810, 872-891

Request for Comments (RFC) 171, 172-179, 483, 499-501, 883

reverse engineering 701

Rheingold, Howard 137, 165, 627

Rice University 720-723, 735, 769,
legal counsel of, 769

Richards, Paul 691

Ricoeur, Paul 124-125

Ritchie, Dennis 369-388, 413, 710-712

Roles, in Connexions 814-843

rumor on Usenet 558-565, 627-635

Rumor on Usenet 664

Sahlins, Marshall 849-851

Salus, Peter 64, 375-381, 405

sampling, musical 861-864

SCO (corporation) 450, 477

Second Life, as recursive public 877

Secrecy 349-356, 500-501, 534

secrecy 303-309, 474, 592

Shakar, Udhay 132-138, 165

Shambhala 677-683, 691,
see also Apache, 691

Shannon, Claude 111

sharing source code (component of Free Software) 48, 348-398, 355, 378, 379, 387, 398-413, 518, 743, 747, 765, 824,
before Software, 355,
legal aspects, 379,
modulations of, 743, 747, 765, 824,
pedagogical aspects, 378, 387,
technical aspects, 379

Silk-list (mailing list) 136-141, 139,
as a public, 139

singularity 157, 267-276

Skolnick, Cliff 668, 672, 674

social imaginary 44, 70-72, 115-130, 118, 124, 142-146, 164-174, 191, 342, 430, 482, 518, 764, 772-773, 880,
ideology vs., 118, 124

social movement, theories of 339

Software 500, 595,
implementation of, 500,
legal definition of source code and, 595,
registration of copyright, 595

software 545, 586,
copyrightability of, 545,
registration of copyright, 586

Software development 327-334, 339-340

software development 243-246, 316-318, 584, 661, 666, 691, 713,
Apache project, 666,
as spectrum, 713,
creating vs. maintaining, 584,
patch and vote method, 661, 691

Software manuals 754

software tools 318, 377-379, 687-688

Solaris (operating system) 409, 450, 464

Source code 442-444

source code 355, 359, 361-368, 587-588, 595,
batch processing, 359,
legal definition and, 595,
translation of, 355

Source Code Management tools (SCMs) 617, 623, 684-705, 685, 686, 687, 691, 693,
as tool for distribution, 687,
definition of, 685,
right to “commit” change, 691,
see also Bitkeeper, 693,
see also Concurrent Versioning System (cvs), 686

Sparc (computer workstation) 409, 488

Stallman, Richard 211, 297-298, 313, 324, 327-330, 332-334, 338, 341, 344, 514-624, 626, 697, 754, 887

Stallman,Richard 645

standards 95, 112, 173, 222, 229, 233, 244, 309, 359, 415-417, 427, 437, 438-442, 445, 452, 458, 473, 485, 500, 508, 883-884,
as form of competition, 427, 437, 445, 458,
implementation, 458, 500,
interface definition as, 452,
Internet, 95, 112, 173, 222, 229, 233,
ownership of, 309, 473,
programming languages, 359,
validation of, 485, 500, 508

Standards 149,
Internet, 149

standards organizations 419, 454-480, 501

standards processes 173-175, 178-180, 412, 482-485, 491-495, 499, 883-884

Sun Microsystems 303, 400, 461-470, 556-557, 696

Sundaram, Ram 136

System V Interface Definition (SVID) 458

Tanenbaum, Andrew 386-387, 394, 621-648, 630, 639,
Minix and, 394, 630, 639

Taylor, Charles 72, 117-120, 126-129, 140-142, 173

tcl/tk (programming language) 201, 625

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) 164, 177, 353, 400, 419, 482-509, 497,
goals of, 497,
included in BSD, 400

Technology 256,
lag, 256

technology 27, 32, 34, 39, 82, 251, 282, 780,
as argument, 27, 34, 39, 82, 282, 780,
meanings of, 251,
politics of, 32

TECO (text editor and programming language) 529-530, 572, 598

Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre 265

telecommunications industry 489-494

Terbush, Randy 678

TeX 54

text editors 358-359, 401-402, 527-540

textbooks 394, 639, 722, 750, 834,
model in Connexions, 750, 834,
on operating systems and networks, 394, 639

Thau, Robert 677-683

Thompson, Ken 369-385, 400-401, 413, 688

time 241, 256, 262, 267, 281,
initial conditions and, 281,
singularity and, 267,
technical progress and, 241, 256, 262

Torek, Chris 601

Torvalds, Linus 209-210, 326, 332, 338, 608, 623-626, 626, 693,
autobiography of, 626,
in bitkeeper controversy, 693

trade secret law 377, 390-391, 398-399, 545, 589, 597,
relationship to public domain, 589

Trade secret law 586-592

trademark law 407, 545

Transhumanism 234,
polymaths vs., 234

transhumanism 157, 189, 194, 265, 267, 811,
Julian Huxley and, 265,
singularity and, 267

translation of source code 355-360

Traweek, Sharon 860

Trigdell, Andrew 701

Turing, Alan 355-357

unbundling 349, 362-364

uncertainty, in the law 586-606

Unipress 543-584, 599

Unisys 462-464

UNIX International 452, 469-472

UNIX operating system 202, 350-353, 353, 367, 387, 394, 401, 443, 448, 449, 626, 710, 805, 885,
allegiance to versions of, 448, 805, 885,
as commercial product, 394,
as part of speech, 449,
development of, 710,
history of, 367, 443,
Open Systems and, 443,
relationship to Arpanet, 353, 401,
standardization and, 443,
Windows operating system vs., 387

UNIX philosophy 353, 386-387, 413

Unix to Unix copy protocol (uucp) 488

UNIX wars 446, 469-472

usable pasts 191-193, 213, 235, 282-288, 334, 344, 433

Usable pasts 492

Usenet 488, 519, 558, 597, 609, 627, 664,
rumor on, 558, 627, 664

Usenix (user group) 377

user groups 456-457,
/usr/group, 456

User groups 664

users, status in Connexions 815

VA Linux (corporation) 298, 332-335

vi (text editor) 401-402, 528

Vinge, Vernor 157, 267

Wall, Larry 332

Warner, Michael 117, 142-146

Weber, Max 66

Weber, Steven 314, 649, 707

White Stripes 777-778

Wikipedia (collaborative encyclopedia) 26, 803-804, 815, 832

Wiley, Davis 755

Wilson, Andrew 668-670, 674

Wired (magazine) 137, 165, 664,
HotWired (online version of Wired), 664

workstations 446, 461-464

World Wide Web (www) 303, 308, 484, 509, 663-665

World Wide Web consortium (w3c) 309

X Windows 480

X/Open Consortium 452, 459-479, 465

Xerox PARC 488

Zawinski, Jamie 300-305, 319-322

Zimmerman, Steve 546-606, 591, 605



License: Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike License, available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ or by mail from Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, Calif. 94305, U.S.A. "NonCommercial" as defined in this license specifically excludes any sale of this work or any portion thereof for money, even if sale does not result in a profit by the seller or if the sale is by a 501(c)(3) nonprofit or NGO.
Duke University Press gratefully acknowledges the support of HASTAC (Humanities, Arts, Science, and Technology Advanced Collaboratory), which provided funds to help support the electronic interface of this book.
Two Bits is accessible on the Web at twobits.net.


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