Viral Spiral - How the Commoners Built a Digital Republic of Their Own
David Bollier (2008)

Book Index

Abelson, Hal 82, 286, 350, 359, 402, 407, 412, 418, 757, 995,
CC board, on, 757,
CC licensing, and, 402,
copyright conservancy idea, and, 350,
cyberlaw, and, 286, 350,
digital rights management, and, 407,
Free Software Foundation, and, 359, 757,
OpenCourseWare, and, 995

Abelson, Hall 901,
CC board, on, 901

Adida, Ben 406, 408

Allen, George 1040

Amazon 142, 181, 473, 480, 506, 507, 835, 867,
eBay, 480

American Library Association 206

Anderson, Chris 504-506

Aoki, Keith 198

Apache Web server 140

APIs (application programming interfaces) 862

ASCAP 562-563, 565

Asschenfeldt, Christiane 632-633

AT&T 98

Atkins, Daniel E. 997, 1003

attribution stacking 943

Aufderheide, Pat 782-783

authorship 89, 96, 97, 103, 106, 110, 112, 217-230, 219, 225-228, 381, 741,
collective, 219,
community access, 96, 103, 106, 110, 112,
control, and, 741,
Creative Commons, and, 381,
joint, 97

Ayer, Don 294, 298

Babbitt, Chris 358, 377-378, 385, 395

Ballmer, Steve 832

Baraniuk, Richard 976-989

Barlow, John Perry 199-203, 236-242, 286, 439, 646,
CC International, and, 646

Barnes, Peter 533,
Capitalism 3.0, 533

BBC 672

Bearman, David 369

Beastie Boys 566, 588

Bellagio Declaration 229

belson, Hal 358,
copyright conservancy idea, and, 358

Benkler, Yochai 144, 198, 235-236, 243, 462, 512, 533, 726, 731, 790, 819, 822, 1028,
open networks, on, 144, 819,
social movements, on, 726, 731, 790, 1028,
The Wealth of Networks, 462, 533, 822

Berkman Center for Internet & Society 282, 286-291, 349, 357

Berners-Lee, Tim 403, 952

Berry, David 705, 731, 766

Bice, Ed 1011

Big Buck Bunny (animated short) 553-554

Biological Materials Transfer Project 910

Bissell, Ahrash 1015

Bjorkland, Laura 387

Blender Institute 551-553

blip.tv 847-848

blogging 488-489, 497, 499, 534, 611

bloging 537

BMI (Broadcast Music, Inc.) 562-565, 591

Boyle, James 82, 159, 177, 198, 229, 235-236, 357, 412, 512, 631, 639, 888, 900, 1050,
as chairman, 639,
CC board, on, 412, 1050,
CC formation, and, 357, 412,
CC International, and, 631,
chairman, as, 1050,
enclosure movement, on, 177,
Science Commons, and, 888, 900,
Shamans, Software and Spleens, by, 229

Bracha, Oren 414

Brazil 642, 854,
free culture in, 642,
tecnobrega music scene in, 854

Breyer, Stephen 301

Bridgeport v. Dimension Films 578

Brockland, John 415

Brown 1003

Brown, Glenn Otis 413, 414, 419, 444, 451, 589, 598, 599, 612-614, 625, 634,
CC as movement and “machine,”, and, 599, 634,
CC formation, and, 413,
CC licensing, and, 414, 444, 451, 598,
executive director, as, 625,
fair use, and, 419

Brown, Glenn Otis, CC International, and 652-653

Brown, John Seely 546, 997, 1074

Brown, Patrick O. 924

Browne, Delia 1010

Buckman, John 805-809

Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002) 925

Bugscope 32

Byrne, David 566, 588, 662

Cabell, Diane 357

Carr, Nicholas 848-850

Carroll, Michael W. 370, 390-394, 412, 901, 960

CC Zero (CC0) 944-950

Center for Internet and Society 341

Center for Public Domain 412

Center for the Public Domain 539

Centralized Media 467-474, 470, 471, 472, 474, 475, 481, 482, 483, 485, 503, 518, 825, 1025,
alternatives vs., 482, 483,
choke points of, 470,
competition, and, 470, 481, 518, 1025,
Internet vs., 472, 475, 503,
ownership rules for, 474,
piracy, and, 471, 485,
production/distribution chain of, 825

Chance, Tom 706

Chander, Anupam 770-772

Change Congress (organization) 1050

Cheliotis, Giorgos 680-681

Chesbrough, Henry 465, 828

Chuck D 566

Cicero 1068,
on freedom, 1068

citizenship 1029, 1035, 1067, 1070, 1075,
history-making, 1035, 1067, 1070, 1075,
new species of, 1029

Clinton administration 186, 320,
White Paper, 186, 320

Clinton, Bill 184

Clinton, George 578

Coase, Ronald 819

Coates, Jessica 675

code 117, 278, 401, 402, 438, 610, 616, 728, 797,
as law, 117, 616,
branding the public domain in, 401,
CC licenses, and, 610,
free access to, 728, 797,
law, as, 278, 402,
levels of, 438

Coelho, Paulo 534

Cohen, Julie 159, 198

Coleman, E. Gabriella 1054

collecting societies 683-684,
see also ASCAP, 683

collective ownership 105

Collins, Mike 390-394

commoners 22, 26, 28, 37, 40, 47, 462, 516, 728, 737, 829, 1022, 1032, 1038, 1073,
concept of, 22,
gatherings of, 28,
goal, 26,
influence of, 1022, 1038,
rise of, 47,
sef-selection of, 516,
sharing by, 37, 40, 462, 728, 737, 829, 1073,
“netizens”, 1032

commons 22, 30, 35, 38, 97, 143, 177, 227, 508, 510, 512, 513, 515, 516, 518, 520, 724, 734, 773, 797, 853, 867, 1033, 1034, 1039, 1055, 1059, 1067, 1071,
achievement of, 35, 797,
building a market on, 853,
concept of, 22, 515, 520,
copyright law vs., 97,
definition of, 1034,
enclosure of, 177, 227, 510,
force for change, as, 1055,
individual choice vs., 724, 734,
new type of legal organism, 1033, 1059,
niche communities as, 508,
online, 513, 518,
political implications of, 38, 1039, 1067,
protection of, 773,
sources of new ideas, as, 30, 867, 1071,
tragedy of, 510,
types of, 512,
value proposition of, 143, 516

commons-based peer production 462, 822-825

communities 496, 508, 853, 996,
commons, and, 508, 853,
learning, 996,
online, 496

Connexions 979-989

Cooley Godward Kronish 415, 582

Coombe, Rosemary 198

copyright 186, 190,
fair use doctrine, and, 186, 190,
first sale, and, 186

Copyright Act (1976) 42, 165-168

Copyright Clause, U.S. Constitution 290, 295, 296

copyright conservancy 315, 350-385

copyright law 41, 42, 97, 103, 104, 156, 157, 160, 161, 162, 165, 167, 169, 170, 174, 176, 177, 178, 180, 181, 182, 188, 190, 195, 207, 209, 217, 220, 230, 231, 258, 260, 261, 266, 287, 290, 295, 296, 300, 303, 308, 322, 326, 330, 331, 344, 345, 347, 347, 371, 374, 407, 415, 416, 420, 451, 594, 622, 623, 632, 788, 789, 794, 891, 942, 943, 1053,
and property rights, 42,
assumptions of, 1053,
attribution stacking in databases, and, 943,
authorship, and, 217,
automatic, 42, 169,
balance of public and private rights, 160, 300, 303,
CC licenses, and, 420, 623,
community authorship vs., 97, 103,
conditional permission license, 420,
decline of, 594,
derivative works, on, 943,
digital age, in, 178, 347, 407,
DMCA, 190,
enclosure movement, and, 177,
enforceability of, 420,
expansion of, 156, 167, 180, 207, 260, 266, 287, 290, 295, 296, 308, 374,
fair use doctrine, and, 162, 174, 182, 220, 300, 331, 347, 788,
first sale doctrine, and, 162,
international, 188, 632,
licenses for, 415,
licenses, and, 451,
licensing rights, 103,
limits on the scope of, 347,
mercantilist view of, 174,
moral rights, and, 622,
originality, and, 217,
orphan works, 261,
philosophical challenges to, 230, 231,
property rights, and, 104, 161, 176, 195, 322, 326, 344, 789, 794, 891,
proprietary rights, 181,
public domain vs., 160, 209, 258, 330, 344, 347,
purpose of, 260, 416,
revision of (1976), 42, 165,
scholarship about, 157,
science, in, 891, 942,
sharing economy vs., 41, 345, 371,
“orphan works”, 170

Copyright law 52,
CC licenses, 52

Copyright Term Extension Act 194, 250, 260-266, 290, 296-301, 308-309, 361

copyright use 168,
fair use doctrine, and, 168

Copyright’s Commons 337-340, 358-385, 372,
See also Creative Commons, 337,
three zone system of, 372

counter-copyright (cc) campaign 339

Cox, Ana Marie 840

Craigslist 473, 497

Creative Commons (CC) 65, 337, 358, 375, 383, 387, 401, 446, 453, 595, 599, 606, 623, 624, 625, 626, 634, 698, 699, 726, 740, 842, 944,
CC Salons, 626,
CC+, and, 842,
CC0 (CC Zero), and, 944,
code, and, 401,
Copyright’s Commons, as, 337, 358,
development of, 375,
function of, 375, 383, 387, 446,
funding of, 625,
growth of, 599, 623,
influence of, 624,
logo of, 453,
social movement, as, 65, 446, 595, 626, 634, 698, 726, 740,
“machine”, as, 599, 606, 634, 699

Creative Commons (CC) licenses 19, 52-54, 380-383, 384, 386-400, 410, 419, 420, 422, 441, 444, 449, 455, 500, 524, 547, 557, 576, 594, 598, 604, 609, 610, 621, 622, 623, 692, 711, 714, 718, 720, 725, 729, 737, 743, 744, 779, 805, 844, 942, 1004,
applied to databases, 942,
books, for, 524,
complexity of, 609,
copyright law, and, 52, 420, 623,
critics of, 455, 718, 737, 743, 844,
enforceability of, 420,
evolution of, 410, 444,
fair use, and, 419, 609, 779,
first users of, 524,
incompatibility of, 714, 725,
launch of, 441,
music, for, 557, 576, 692, 805,
popularity of, 744,
public domain, and, 384, 441, 449, 720,
social practice, and, 594, 598,
software code, and, 610,
tools for creating commons, as, 729, 1004,
types of, 422, 711,
version 1.0 of, 420,
version 2.0 of, 621,
version 3.0 of, 622,
video and film, for, 547,
Web 2.0 environment, and, 500, 604, 610

Creative Commons International 67-68, 629-708, 637, 642, 668, 671, 674, 676, 677, 681, 685, 695, 696, 744, 758,
Brazil, 642,
Croatia, 668, 696,
cross-border collaboration, 681,
Developing Nations license, 685, 744, 758,
iCommons network, 695,
Italy, 676,
Japan, 637,
Korea, 696,
laboratories for free culture, as, 677,
Mexico, 676,
Poland, 696,
Scotland, 671, 674

creativity 228,
collaborative, 228

Croatia 668, 696, 1006,
CC licenses in, 668, 696

cyberspace 200, 278,
economic effects of, 278,
use of term, 200

Darnielle, John 575

Darnton, Robert 935

David, Paul 905

DC Comics 213

Dean, Howard 495, 1040, 1050

Debian GNU/Linux distribution 132

DeHart, Jacob 874

Demers, Joanna 577,
Steal This Music, 577

democracy 345, 772, 1029, 1043, 1050, 1053, 1059,
corruption in, 1050,
emergent, 1043, 1053,
new species of citizenship, 1029,
power of the commons in, 1059,
semiotic, 345, 772,
traditional forms of, 1043, 1050

derivative works 943

Dewey, John 1074

Dibbell, Julian 275, 645-646,
“A Rape in Cyberspace”, 275

Digital Future Coalition (DFC) 188-189

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) [1998] 190-194, 870

digital rights expression 619

digital rights management (DRM) 407, 619

DJ Danger Mouse 578, 839

DJ Spooky 438, 449

DJ Vadim 588

Doctorow, Cory 34, 527, 791,
Down and Out in the Magic Kingdom, 527,
free culture movemement, and, 791

Dvorak, John 455

Dyson, Esther 278

eBay 142, 473, 835, 838

EDGAR database 205

education 65, 911, 974-1018, 979, 980, 982, 987, 990, 996, 997, 999,
Connexions, 979,
learning community, in a, 996,
OER movement, 65, 997, 999,
open access movement, 911,
OpenCourseWare, 990,
Semantic Web, and, 980,
university presses, 987,
Web 2.0 applications, and, 982

Eisen, Michael B. 905

Eisenberg, Rebecca 235

Eldred v. Reno/Eldred v. Ashcroft 51, 288-316, 292, 304, 308, 319, 327, 335-342, 337, 350, 445, 496, 591, 634,
Copyright’s Commons, and, 337, 445,
effects of, 304, 319, 350, 591, 634,
Supreme Court, and, 292, 308, 327, 335, 445

Eldred, Eric 250, 258, 263, 266, 315, 315, 321, 326, 350, 357, 412, 1072,
copyright conservancy, and, 315, 350, 357,
copyright law, and, 266, 321, 326,
Creative Commons, and, 412,
Lessig, and, 250, 263, 315, 315, 326,
public domain, and, 258, 263, 315, 1072

Eldritch Press 254-266, 328, 484

Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) 199, 359, 439

Elkin-Koren, Niva 198, 718, 725, 737, 740-742, 747, 752, 789, 844

Ellickson, Robert 1064

Emacs 93-95, 103, 399

enclosure movement 177-178, 227, 510-512

enter for the Public Domain 366-368

Erie Railroad Co. v. Tompkins 273-274

Facebook 520, 836, 838-839

fair use doctrine 162, 168, 174, 178, 182, 186, 190, 220, 300, 320, 331, 347, 419, 609, 779, 788,
CC licenses, and, 419, 609, 779,
copyright law, and, 162, 168, 174, 182, 186, 190, 220, 300, 331, 347, 788,
digital age, in, 347,
reverse engineering, and, 178,
White Paper vs., 186, 320

Fanning, Shawn 343

Faulkes Telescope Project 32

Feld, Harold 558-560

first sale doctrine 162, 186

Fisher, William (Terry) 286, 345, 646

Fitzgerald, Anne 675

Fitzgerald, Brian 675

Ford, Gerald R. 179

Ford, Heather 700

FOSS/FLOSS 136-139, 144, 148, 1053-1055

Franklin, Benjamin 1021-1022

Fraser, Andy 455

free culture 87-120, 117, 257, 320, 345, 633, 660, 708, 721, 733-742, 736, 747, 762, 770, 788, 790, 797, 1019-1075, 1029, 1030, 1052,
differing visions of, 736, 747,
fair use vs., 788,
international, 633, 660, 708, 770,
Internet, of the, 117, 257, 320,
new species of citizenship, as, 1029,
political nature of, 1052,
sharing ethic of, 345, 721, 762, 1030,
social movement, as, 790

Free Documentation License 753-763

Free High School Science Textbooks 1008

free riding 511

free software 12-14, 19, 22, 24, 90, 102, 130, 130, 136, 138, 144, 145, 148, 334, 461, 486, 509, 651, 690, 747, 789, 794, 819, 1053,
creation of value, and, 819,
economic effects of, 138, 486, 509,
expansion of, 148,
FOSS/FLOSS, 136, 144, 148, 1053,
Great Value Shift, and, 461,
international licensing, and, 651, 690,
open source software, as, 130, 334,
social movement, as, 747, 789, 794,
uses of term, 130, 145

Free Software Foundation 102, 115, 119, 124, 359, 719, 751, 754, 758, 761

freeware vs. free software 114

Fried, Charles 293

Frost, Robert, Jr. 361

Fuller, R. Buckminster 1020, 1063

Funkadelic 578

Future of Music Coalition 561

Garlick, Mia 625

Gates, Bill 96, 894

General Public License (GPL) 49, 85-86, 104-118, 105, 116, 127, 395, 420, 727, 773, 832, 940,
commons, and, 773,
critics of, 832,
free software, and, 727,
legal enforceability of, 116, 395, 420,
Linux, and, 127,
viral nature of, 105,
“reach-through” requirement, 940

General Public License (GPL)free software, and 599-600

Ghosh, Rishab 144

Ghosh, Shubha 302

Gibson, William 200, 521

gift economy 116, 320

Gil, Gilberto 566, 582, 588-589, 643-654, 662-665, 708

Gilder, George 278

Gillmor, Dan 533,
We the Media, 533

Gilmore, John 199, 278

Ginsburg, Ruth Bader 300

Global Communications Center (GLOCOM) 637

GNU Project 102-105, 128, 398, 539, 622, 719, 753-763,
GNU FDL, 398, 539, 622, 719

GNU/Linux 51, 61, 127-132, 140, 334, 366, 651, 728, 819, 833,
Brazil, in, 651,
IBM, and, 61, 140, 833,
open business models, and, 819,
Red Hat, and, 140, 366, 728

Goldstein, Paul 197

Google 409, 473, 480, 563, 610, 612, 835, 838, 845

Gordon, Wendy 198

Gore, Al 184, 187

Gracenote 867

Grateful Dead 573-574, 853

Great Value Shift 456, 457-466, 476, 521, 545, 816, 892, 900, 914, 993, 1025

Greenwald, Robert 878

group-forming networks (GFNs) 822

Guadamuz, Andrés 671

Guggenheim, Davis 412, 555

Guédon, Jean-Claude 923

hackers 92, 96, 118, 120, 599, 867, 871,
community of, 118, 120, 867,
innovations by, 871,
political philosophy, 599,
use of term, 92, 96

Hammond, Allen L. 997

Hardin, Garret 511

Harnad, Stevan 923

Hart, Michael S. 264

Harvard University 935

Hatcher, Jordan 947

Haughey, Matt 452, 454

Hayashi, Koichiro 637

Herbert, Simon 25

Hewlett-Packard 125, 146, 465

Hill, Benjamin Mako 747-749

Hilton, Perez 840

Homebrew Computer Club 867

Human Genome Project (HGP) 893, 940

Hunter, Dan 593-594

IBM 61, 125, 140, 146, 833,
GNU/Linux, and, 61, 140, 833,
open source, and, 125, 146

iBridge Network 971

iCommons 695-708

ilbanks, John 953

Inernet 457,
Great Value Shift, and, 457

Information Superhighway 184-190

intellectual property 89, 180, 229,
protection of, 180,
public domain vs., 229

Interenet 495,
political campaigns on, 495

International HapMap Project 941

Internet 44, 116, 117, 184, 254, 255, 256, 257, 278, 281, 286, 320, 334, 335, 402, 402, 406, 459, 460, 472, 475, 478, 481, 496, 498, 502, 503, 521, 544, 545, 623, 721, 727, 815, 839, 845, 851, 872, 993, 1024, 1025, 1026, 1031, 1035, 1040,
architecture of, 257, 278, 334,
attempts to control, 1025,
Centralized Media vs., 472, 475, 503,
citizenship, and, 1035,
commercial economy of, 851,
communication system, as, 254, 502, 623,
empowerment by, 44,
freedom of, 278, 281, 335, 402,
future of, 402, 406, 721, 1026,
gift economy, 727,
gift economy of, 116, 320, 459,
Great Value Shift, and, 521, 545, 993,
hybrid economy enabled by, 851,
legal quandaries arising on, 286,
mass participation in, 255, 498, 1031,
net neutrality rules on, 1026,
political campaigns on, 1040,
protocols of, 256, 406,
rise of, 117, 184, 815,
sharing economy of, 851,
socially created value of, 460, 478, 496, 1024,
videos and films on, 544, 845,
virtual word of mouth on, 481, 839, 872

Interplast 33

IP Commons 358-385

iPod 867

Italy 676,
CC licenses in, 676

Ito, Joichi 614, 616, 639-640, 750, 1043, 1053

Jackson, Penfield 283

Jamendo 860-864

Jaszi, Peter 178, 188, 198, 227, 229, 260, 287, 293, 781-783

Jefferson, Richard 895

John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation 625

Johnson, David R. 370, 1032-1033, 1045, 1059

Johnson, Don 979

Jones, Day, Reavis & Pogue 291-295

Joyce, Don 580

Joyce, Stephen 332

Junell, Ryan 452-453

Kahle, Brewster 537

Kapor, Mitch 199, 279

Kastenmeier, Robert 173, 183

Keller, Paul 683

Kelly, Kevin 540-541

Kennedy, Anthony 298

Kirkman, Catherine 415

Knowledge Conservancy 369

Koerner, Brendan I. 872

Korea 696,
CC licenses in, 696

Kucinich, Dennis 450

Lakhani, Karim R. 874

Lamont, Ned 1040

Lange, David 157

Lastowka, F. Gregory 593

Latman, Alan 197

Latour, Bruno 1066

Lauren, Ralph 234

law 117, 272, 275, 278, 286, 287, 294, 300, 306, 308, 402, 616, 1033, 1059,
code as, 117, 278, 402, 616,
commons as new type of legal organism, 1033, 1059,
cyberspace, of, 275, 286,
limited power of, 308,
originalist principles of, 294, 300, 306,
political implications of, 1059,
social change, and, 272, 287

Lederberg, Joshua 905

Lee, Stephen 550

Lego 871-872

Lehman, Bruce 186, 189

Lemos da Silva, Ronaldo 649, 655-661, 855-859

Leonhard, Gerd 592

Lerman, Steven 994

Lessig, Lawrence 40-42, 50-52, 55, 82-83, 117, 159, 168, 198, 248, 250, 263-266, 267-316, 268, 272, 278, 283, 284, 287, 288, 312, 315, 326, 331, 333, 334, 335, 341, 341, 349, 358, 361, 404, 407, 409, 414, 438, 445, 446, 449, 512, 514, 533, 536, 562, 591, 594, 602, 602, 604, 611, 616, 625, 631, 634, 634, 641, 646, 669, 686, 689, 690, 693, 696, 706, 716, 736, 742, 751, 755, 766, 784, 797, 847, 851, 984, 1050, 1069, 1072,
background of, 268,
CC International, and, 631, 634, 641, 646, 669, 686, 689, 693, 696,
CC licenses, and, 404, 409, 414, 438, 445, 562, 594, 602, 604, 611, 625, 716, 742, 755, 766, 797, 984,
Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace, 55, 117, 278, 284, 287, 334, 341, 349, 407, 602, 616, 1069,
Copyright’s Commons, and, 358,
Eldred v. Reno, and, 288, 335, 341, 591, 634,
Eldred, and, 250, 263, 315, 326,
fair use, on, 168, 331, 784,
Free Culture, 533, 536, 602,
freedom, and, 333, 335, 690, 736, 751, 755, 1069,
iCommons, and, 696, 706,
law in contemporary context, and, 248, 272, 288, 333, 512, 602, 1072,
Microsoft lawsuit, and, 283,
music, and, 562, 591,
open business sites, and, 847,
political activity of, 1050,
public domain, and, 449,
public speaker, as, 312, 361, 641,
Remix, 851,
The Future of Ideas, 446, 514, 602

Lessig, LawrenceCC licenses, and 402

Lev, Nimrod 570-572

Liang, Lawrence 702

Libby, “Scooter” 1042

libraries 206, 902, 921, 925, 960,
open access movement, and, 925,
Science Commons, and, 902, 921, 960,
“serials crisis”, and, 921

LibriVox 32, 537

Linksvayer, Mike 619, 625

Linux 51, 120, 122, 127, 136, 819, 978,
development of, 120,
education, and, 978,
GPL, and, 127,
open business models, and, 819,
see also GNU/Linux, 51,
sociological effect of, 122, 136

Lippmann, Walter 1037

Litman, Jessica 167, 171-172, 187, 193, 198, 220

Lohmann, Fred von 196

Long Tail 466, 504-507, 825, 1000

Lorde, Audre 794

Lott, Trent 1040

Love, James 205, 686-689

Love, Jennifer 337

Lovink, Geert 1061-1062

Lowe, Derek 885

Lugosi, Bela 213

Lula da Silva, Luiz Inácio 643

Lulu 539

Machinima animations 60

MacKinnon, Catherine 274, 276

Magnatune 805-813, 861

Malamud, Carl 205

Maracke, Catharina 678

markets 477, 481, 511,
efficiency of, 511,
restructuring, 477, 481

Marx Brothers 213-214

Material Transfer Agreements (MTAs) 966-973

Maxwell, Elliot 134-135, 867

McGegan, Nicholas 587

McGuinn, Roger 449

McGuire, Hugh 32, 537

McKinsey & Company 377

McLeod, Kembrew 533, 578,
Freedom of Expression, 533

Medak, Tomislav 668-670

media 467, 474, 475, 481, 483,
open, 475,
ownership of, 474,
participatory, 481, 483,
See also Centralized Media, 467

Merges, Robert 899

Merton, Robert 897, 900

Mexico 676,
CC licenses in, 676

Microsoft 125, 141, 205, 283, 617, 705, 817, 819, 832, 835,
antitrust lawsuit against, 125, 205, 283,
CC licenses, and, 617, 705,
competition against, 125, 141, 817, 819, 832,
“Shared Source” licenses of, 835

Miller, Arthur R. 310

MIT OpenCourseWare 990-998

Mitchell, Jonathan 674

Moglen, Eben 115, 757

Moody, Glyn 950

Moore, James 39

Morgan, Ashley 337

Moss, Giles 731, 766

Mountain Goats 575

music 58, 557, 559, 562, 565, 565, 569, 570, 576, 577, 692, 805, 853, 861, 863,
ASCAP, 565,
ASCAP+l, 562,
CC licenses for, 557, 805,
hip-hop, 577,
market building on a commons, 853,
music industry, 559, 565, 570,
remixes, 58, 557, 576, 692,
social experience, as, 569,
“folksonomy” tags in, 861, 863

MySpace 480, 520, 839, 840

Napster 343-345, 349, 372, 390, 493, 496

Nation (magazine) 179

National Education Access Licence for Schools (NEALS) 1010

National Information Infrastructure (NII) 184-190

National Institutes for Health (NIH) 928, 970

Negativland 579-580

Negroponte, Nicholas 1007

Nesson, Charles 282, 286, 357, 380

Netscape 833

Neuefeind, Bettina 341

Neurocommons 909, 957-962

New York Times 821

Newton, Isaac 218

Nguyen, Thinh 947, 964-965, 969

Nickell, Jake 874

Nimmer, Melville 197

Nimus, Anna 767-768

Nine Inch Nails 590

No Electronic Theft Act (1997) 265

Noguchi, Yuko 638

NU/Linux 1043

Obama, Barack 1040

Ochoa, Tyler 169

OhmyNews.org 497

Oliar, Dotan 377, 414

Omidyar Network 625

One Laptop Per Child 1007

open access (OA) movement 911-933, 912-931, 933, 935

open business models 61-62, 479, 542, 803-882, 814, 815, 816, 817, 818, 819, 828, 829, 831, 832, 839, 847, 853, 865, 882, 1049,
building a market on a commons, 853,
commercial ecosystem, as, 831,
definition, no consensus, 828,
first movers, 832,
Great Value Shift, and, 816,
international, 829,
interoperability of, 817,
open networks and, 814, 847, 882,
social responsibility, and, 828,
transparency in, 815, 1049,
using open platforms to get discovered, 839,
value created in, 818, 865,
“transaction cost” theory, and, 819

Open Educational Resources (OER) movement 997, 999-1018

Open Knowledge Definition 947

open networks 501-507, 651, 759, 797-798, 814,
international, 651,
license incompatibility, and, 759,
new business models in, 814

Open Society Institute 668

Open Source Initiative 133-135

open source software 140, 144, 415, 486, 615,
CC licenses, and, 615,
economic implications of, 144, 486,
functions of, 140,
legal implications of, 415,
uses of term, 144

OpenBusiness 829

OpenCourseWare 990-998

OpenCulture.org 369

openness 147,
limitations of, 147

orld Wide Web 219,
collective authorship, and, 219

orrison, Alan 293

Ostrom, Elinor, Governing the Commons 512

Oxford English Dictionary 867

O’Connor, Sandra Day 298

O’Reilly, Tim 486, 611

Paharia, Neeru 584, 618, 1012

Panetta, Jill A. 874

Patterson, L. Ray 198

Paul, Ron 1040

Pavlosky, Nelson 627

pen Educational Resources (OER) movement 65-66

People Like Us 438

Perens, Bruce 132

permalinks 488

Peters, Diane 625

piracy 173, 471, 485, 787, 857

Poland 696,
CC licenses in, 696

Porter, Cole 589

Posner, Richard 271, 296

Prestel, Claire 358

Procter & Gamble 465

Prodromou, Evan 875-876

Project Gutenberg 264

property rights 161, 176, 181, 195, 322, 326, 344, 789, 794, 891,
copyright law, and, 161, 176, 181, 195, 322, 326, 344, 789, 794, 891

property rights, and copyright law 42, 104

public domain 106, 151-244, 155, 160, 209, 243, 258, 330, 344, 347, 366, 378, 384, 401, 412, 441, 449, 539, 720, 770-773, 946, 948,
branding of, 378, 401,
CC licenses, and, 384, 441, 449, 720,
Center for Public Domain, 366, 412, 539,
commons, and, 770,
conferences about, 243,
copyright law, and, 155, 160, 209, 258, 330, 344, 347,
emergence of, 155, 209,
GPL, and, 106,
privatization of, 258,
reconstructing, 946,
social norms, and, 948

public domain dedication 436

Public Knowledge 74

Racine, Laurie 367-368

Radin, Margaret Jane 196

Radiohead 344, 568, 808

Rai, Arti 905

Rand, Ayn 792

Raymond, Eric S. 131, 136-137, 819,
“The Cathedral and the Bazaar”, 819

RDF (Resource Description Framework) 958

RDF/XML 403, 406-409

Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) 343-344, 353, 455

Red Hat 140, 366, 539, 728

ree Documentation License 398

Reed, David P. 822

Rehnquist, William 298

Reichman, Jerome H. 198, 357, 374

Rein, Lisa 404-406, 608

remix works 58-60, 557-575, 576-594, 692-693

Revver 845-847

Rheingold, Howard 486

Rice University 976-989

Richard 690,
free software, and, 690

RightsAgent 843

Rockefeller Foundation 625

Roosendaal, Ton 552

Rosen, Jay 45

Rossetto, Louis 278

Rouhana, Rudy 843

RSS feeds 488

Saltzman, Eric 357, 362-363, 370-378, 395, 412, 901

Samuelson, Pamela 159, 182, 187, 198, 204, 235

Sanger, Larry 490

Scalia, Antonin 271, 296, 306

Schmidt, J. Philipp 1013, 1018

Schmidt-Jones, Kitty 982

Scholar’s Copyright Project 908, 932-950

Schrader, Dorothy 173

Schudson, Michael 1035-1037

science 888, 891, 893, 897, 902, 936, 940, 942, 949, 966, 969,
cientific knowledge, 897,
copyright and patent restrictions in, 891, 942,
databases, 936,
Human Genome Project, 893, 940,
Material Transfer Agreements (MTAs), 966,
scientific knowledge, 888,
transaction costs in, 902, 949, 969

Science Commons 63, 883-973, 901, 902, 908, 909, 911, 912, 921, 932, 936, 944, 953, 957, 960, 963, 971,
CC Commons spinoff, and, 63, 901,
CC0 (CC Zero), and, 944,
iBridge Network, and, 971,
libraries, and, 902, 921, 960,
Neurocommons, and the, 909, 957,
open access movement, and, 911, 912,
open physical tools in, 963,
ownership of data, and, 936,
Scholar’s Copyright Project, and, 908, 932,
Semantic Web, and the, 953

Scoopt 34

Scotland 671, 674,
CC licenses in, 671, 674

SellaBand 878

Seltzer, Wendy 340, 419

Semantic Web 403-409, 953-959, 980

Sengupta, Shuddhabrata 774

Sentelle, David 291

Shapiro, Andrew 277

Shapiro, Jake 567, 839

Shatzkin, Mike 543

Singh, Deepak 950

Smith, Adam 139, 881,
The Theory of Moral Sentiments, 139, 881

Smith, Luke 627

Smith, Patti 572

Smolens, Michael 702, 702

social production 139-145

socially created value 29-34

software 81, 91, 98, 104, 105, 108, 114, 117, 130, 178, 181, 181, 334, 493, 610, 1072,
CC licenses, and, 610,
copyright of, 178, 181, 181,
core infrastructure, as, 117,
open source, 130, 334,
P2P, 493,
proprietary, 81, 91, 104, 114, 1072,
source code for, 98, 114,
user freedoms, 105, 108

Sohn, Gigi 313

Soros, George 668

Souter, David 411

sraelite, David 455

Stallman, Richard 81, 85-119, 93, 102, 103, 104, 105, 108, 113, 128, 131, 146, 148, 258, 286, 357, 359, 364, 398, 399, 509, 602, 689, 691, 727, 731, 736, 744, 754, 797, 827, 1072,
Copyright’s Commons, and, 357, 359, 364,
criticisms by, 731, 736, 744, 754,
Emacs, and, 93, 103, 399,
free software, and, 102, 113, 131, 146, 509,
freedom, and, 105, 108, 148, 602, 689, 736, 744, 827,
GNU Project, and, 102, 128, 398,
GPL, and, 104, 727,
influence of, 146, 148, 258, 602, 691, 797,
Wikipedia, and, 754

Staples 877

Star Wreck Studios 549-550, 840

Starr, Steven 846

Steuer, Eric 625

Stevens, John Paul 301

Stevens, Ted 60

Students for Free Culture 627

Suber, Peter 70, 914, 918, 920-921, 923, 925

Sullivan, Kathleen 293, 341

Sulston, Sir John 905, 940

Sun Microsystems 126, 146

Sunder, Madhavi 770-772

Surman, Mark 1013, 1018

Surowiecki, James 486

Swartz, Aaron 404, 406, 408-409

Söderberg, Johan 1054

Tapscott, Don 486, 592

Tatel, David 291

Tawileh, Anas 702

Taylor, Mark 1070

Thomas, Clarence 306

Threadless 873-874

Time (magazine) 518

Tocqueville, Alexis de 1024

Toffler, Alvin 278

Torssonen, Samuli 549, 840

Torvalds, Linus 119-120, 128

trademarks 183, 194,
dilution of, 183, 194

TramaVirtual 858-860

transaction costs 819, 902, 949, 969,
in science, 902,
science, in, 949, 969,
theory of, 819

transparency 815, 1049-1050

Trippi, Joe 1050

Two Ton Shoe 567, 839

Uhlir, Paul 374

Unicode 453

Uniform Biological Material Transfer Agreement (UBMTA) 970

Unique Resource Identifier (URI) 954, 959

Unique Resource Locator (URL) 954

United Nations 688

Unix 98, 102, 119-120, 126-127

Vaidhyanathan, Siva 302-303, 578, 820

Valenti, Jack 154, 172, 295, 364, 439-440

value 143, 460, 516, 818, 865, 1025,
creation of, 143, 460, 516, 818, 865

Van Houweling, Molly Shaffer 411-416, 444

Varmus, Harold E. 924

Vest, Charles 991-992, 994

Viacom 545

Vianna, Bruno 556

Vianna, Hermano 646-647

videos and film 544-556, 845-847

von Hippel, Eric 869-870

Waelde, Charlotte 947

Wales, Jimmy 490, 757, 1054

Wallis, Richard 936

Walt Disney Company 194, 225, 258

Web 2.0 466, 483, 487, 500, 520, 604, 610, 823, 847, 848, 882, 900, 982,
applications, 483, 982,
CC licenses, and, 500, 604, 610,
coining of term, 487,
commons platform, as, 848,
Great Value Shift, and, 466, 900,
open business, and, 823, 847, 882,
purposes of, 520

web 2.0 20,
applications, 20

Weber, Steven 124,
The Success of Open Source, 124

Weinberger, David 980

West Publishing 675

Wexler, Jerry 564

White Paper [on copyright] 186-190, 320

Wi-Fi 867

Wikipedia 65, 398, 473, 490, 691, 701, 719, 721, 753, 830, 1000,
CC licenses, and, 691, 719, 721, 753,
GNU FDL, and, 398, 753,
iCommons, and, 701,
social movement, as, 65, 490, 830

wikis 875-876

Wikitravel Press 538

Wilbanks, John 63-64, 905-906, 934, 942, 946, 957-961, 969, 972

William and Flora Hewlett Foundation 625

Williams, Anthony D. 486

Williams, Sam 95, 106

Willinsky, John 918, 923

Wilmer, Cutler & Pickering 370

Wilson, Sonsini, Goodrich & Rosati 415, 582

Winer, Dave 611

Woodmansee, Martha 227, 229

World Intellectual Property Organization 189, 651, 662

World Trade Organization 651

World Wide Web 228, 328, 402, 403, 544, 833, 835, 845, 953, 980,
collective authorship, and, 228,
free content on, 402,
protocols for, 403,
Semantic Web, 403, 953, 980,
social activity on, 328, 833, 835,
videos and film on, 544, 845

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) 406, 952, 956-957

Writers Guild of America 545

Xerox Corporation 91-92

XML (Extensible Markup Language) 380

Yahoo 409, 473, 604, 612, 835

Yergler, Nathan 625

Yip, Jennifer 625

Young, Robert 140, 366, 539

YouTube 473, 545-547, 555, 563, 817, 839, 847-848, 1040, 1042

Zimmer, Sylvain 862-864

Zittrain, Jonathan 286, 345, 350, 356-357, 380, 636



License: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license.


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