Viral Spiral - How the Commoners Built a Digital Republic of Their Own
David Bollier (2008)


1. Cited by John Seely Brown, former chief scientist, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, at Open Educational Resources conference, Houston, Texas, March 29, 2007.

2. Keith Aoki, James Boyle, Jennifer Jenkins, Down by Law! at http://www.duke.edu/cspd/comics.

3. “Social production” and “peer production” are associated with the work of Yale law professor Yochai Benkler, especially in his 2006 book, The Wealth of Networks. “Smart mobs” is a coinage of Howard Rheingold, author of a 2003 book by the same name.“Crowdsourcing” is the name of a blog run by Jeff Howe and the title of a June 2006 Wired article on the topic.“Wisdom of crowds” is a term coined by James Surowiecki and used as the title of his 2004 book.

4. http://www.librivox.org.

5. http://faulkes-telescope.com.

6. http://bugscope.beckman.uiuc.edu.

7. http://www.interplast.org and http://creativecommons.org/press-releases/2007/04/%E2%80%9Ca-story-of-healing%E2%80%9D-becomes-first-acad emy-award%C2%AE-winning-film-released-under-a-creative-commons-li cense.

8. http://www.scoopt.com.

9. http://www.twotonshoe.com/news.html.

10. See Doctorow’s preface to the second release of the book, February 12, 2004, Tor Books. See also his blog Craphound.com, September 9, 2006, at http://www.craphound.com/?=p=1681.

11. James F. Moore, “The Second Superpower Rears its Beautiful Head,” March 31, 2003, available at http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/people/jmoore/secondsuperpower.html.

12. Lawrence Lessig, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace (New York: Basic Books, 1999), p. 4.

13. The effect of the elimination of formal registration in copyright law is cogently discussed by Lessig in Free Culture (New York: Penguin, 2004), pp. 170–73, and pp. 248–53.

14. Lawrence Lessig, “The Read-Write Society,” delivered at the Wizards of OS4 conference in Berlin, Germany, on September 5, 2006. Available at http://www.wizards-of-os.org/programm/panels/authorship_amp_culture/keynote_the_read_write_society/the_read_write_society.html.

15. See, e.g., Joanna Demers, Steal This Music: How Intellectual Property Law Affects Musical Creativity (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2006); Kelefa Sanneh, “Mixtapes Mix in Marketing,” New York Times, July 20, 2006.

16. Steve Lohr, “IBM to Give Free Access to 500 Patents, New York Times, July 11, 2005. See also Steven Weber, The Success of Open Source Software (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004), pp. 202–3. See also Pamela Samuelson, “IBM’s Pragmatic Embrace of Open Source,” Communications of the ACM 49, no. 21 (October 2006).

17. Robert D. Hof, “The Power of Us: Mass Collaboration on the Internet Is Shaking Up Business,” BusinessWeek, June 20, 2005, pp. 73–82.

18. Interview with John Wilbanks, “Science Commons Makes Sharing Easier,” Open Access Now, December 20, 2004, available at http://www.biomedcentral.com/openaccess/archive/?page=features&issue=23.

19. See, e.g., Daniel E. Atkins, John Seely Brown, and Allen L. Hammond, “A Review of the Open Educational Resources (OER) Movement: Achievements, Challenges and New Opportunities,” February 2007, available at http://www.oerderves.org/?p=23.

20. Interview with Peter Suber, June 28, 2006.

21. Joshua Gray, editor, Free Software Free Society: Selected Essays of Richard M. Stallman (Boston: GNU Press, 2002), pp. 190–91.

22. Sam Williams, Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman’s Crusade for Free Software (Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly & Associates 2002), pp. 76–88.

23. Steven Levy, Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution (New York: Delta, 1993), pp. 425, 427.

24. Williams, Free as in Freedom, p. 127.

25. Stallman at MIT forum, “Copyright and Globalization in the Age of Computer Networks,” April 19, 2001, available at http://media-in-transition.mit.edu/forums/copyright/transcript.html.

26. Eben Moglen, “Freeing the Mind: Free Software and the Death of Proprietary Culture,” June 29, 2003, available at http://emoglen.law/columbia.edu/publications/maine-speech.html.

27. One useful history of Torvalds and Linux is Glyn Moody, Rebel Code: Inside Linux and the Open Source Revolution (Cambridge, MA: Perseus, 2001).

28. Eric S. Raymond, “A Brief History of Hackerdom,” http://www.catb.org/~est/writings/cathedral-bazaar/hacker-history/ar01s06.html.

29. Steven Weber, The Success of Open Source (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004), p. 100.

30. Williams, Free as in Freedom, p. 100.

31. Torvalds included a brief essay, “Linux kernel management style,” dated October 10, 2004, in the files of the Linux source code, with the annotation, “Wisdom passed down the ages on clay tablets.” It was included as an epilogue in the book Open Life: The Philosophy of Open Source, by Henrik Ingo, and is available at http://www.openlife.cc/node/43.

32. Eric S. Raymond, “The Revenge of the Hackers,” in Chris DiBona, Sam Ockman, and Mark Stone, eds., Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution (Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly & Associates, 1999), p. 212.

33. http://www.opensource.org.

34. Elliot Maxwell, citing Wikipedia entry on “Open Source Movement,” in “Open Standards Open Source and Open Innovation,” in Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 1, no. 3 (Summer 2006), p. 134, note 56.

35. Richard Stallman has outlined his problems with the “open source” definition of software development in an essay, “Why ‘Open Source’ Misses the Point of Free Software,” http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/open-source-misses-thepoint.html.

36. Eric Raymond, “The Cathedral and the Bazaar,” available at http://www.catb.org/~esr/writings/cathedral-bazaar/cathedral-bazaar/ar01s11.html.

37. I am grateful to Nicholas Gruen for this insight, taken from his essay “Geeks Bearing Gifts: Open Source Software and Its Enemies,” in Policy 21, no. 2 (Winter 2005), pp. 39–48.

38. Andrew Leonard, “How Big Blue Fell for Linux,” Salon.com, September 12, 2000, available at http://www.salon.com/tech/fsp/2000/09/12/chapter_7_part_one.print.html. The competitive logic behind IBM’s moves are explored in Pamela Samuelson, “IBM’s Pragmatic Embrace of Open Source,” Communications of the ACM 49, no. 21 (October 2006), and Robert P. Merges, “A New Dynamism in the Public Domain,” University of Chicago Law Review 71, no. 183 (Winter 2004).

39. Steve Hamm, “Linux Inc.,” BusinessWeek, January 31, 2005.

40. Cited by Elliot Maxwell in “Open Standards Open Source and Open Innovation,” note 80, Berlecon Research, Free/Libre Open Source Software: Survey and Study — Firms’ Open Source Activities: Motivations and Policy Implications, FLOSS Final Report, Part 2, at www.berlecon.de/studien/downloads/200207FLOSS _Activities.pdf.

41. Rishab Aiyer Ghosh, “Cooking Pot Markets and Balanced Value Flows,” in Rishab Aiyer Ghosh, ed., CODE: Collaborative Ownership and the Digital Economy (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005), pp. 153–68.

42. See, e.g., Benkler, “Coase’s Penguin, or Linux and the Nature of the Firm,” Yale Law Journal 112, no. 369 (2002); Benkler, “ ‘Sharing Nicely’: On Shareable Goods and the Emergence of Sharing as a Modality of Economic Production,” Yale Law Journal 114, no. 273 (2004).

43. Open Source Yoga Unity, http://www.yogaunity.org; open-source cola, http://alfredo.octavio.net/soft_drink_formula.pdf; open-source beer, Vores OI (Danish for “Our Beer”), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vores_%C3%981. See also http://freebeer.org/blog and http://www.project21.ch/freebeer.

44. Interview with Richard Stallman, January 21, 2008.

45. Jack Valenti, “A Plea for Keeping Alive the U.S. Film Industry’s Competitive Energy, ” testimony on behalf of the Motion Picture Association of America to extend the term of copyright protection, Senate Judiciary Committee, September 20, 1995, at http://instructors.cwrl.utexas.edu/~martin/Valenti.pdf.

46. Julie E. Cohen, “Copyright, Commodification and Culture: Locating the Public Domain,” in Lucie Guibaut and P. Bernt Hugenholtz eds. The Future of the Public Domain: Identifying the Commons in Information Law (The Netherlands: Kluwer Law International, 2006), pp. 121–66.

47. Pamela Samuelson, “Challenges in Mapping the Public Domain,” in Guibault and Hugenholtz, eds. The Future of the Public Domain, pp. 7–26.

48. Jessica Litman, Digital Copyright (Amherst, NY: Prometheus, 2000), p. 62.

49. Tyler Ochoa, “Origins and Meanings of the Public Domain,” Dayton Law Review 28, no. 215 (2002).

50. Lawrence Lessig explains the impact of eliminating the copyright registration requirement in Lessig, Free Culture (New York: Penguin, 2004), pp. 222–23.

51. Interview with Jessica Litman, November 16, 2006.

52. Ibid.

53. James Boyle, “The Second Enclosure Movement and the Construction of the Public Domain,” Law and Contemporary Problems 66 (Winter–Spring 2003), pp. 33–74, at http://www.law.duke.edu/shell/cite.pl?66+Law+&+Contemp.+Probs.+33+ (WinterSpring+2003).

54. Interview with Peter Jaszi, October 17, 2007.

55. Sega Enterprises v. Accolade, 977 F.2d 1510 (9th Cir. 1993).

56. Harper & Row v. Nation Enterprises, 471 U.S. 539 (1985).

57. Samuelson, “Digital Information, Digital Networks, and the Public Domain,” p. 92.

58. See, e.g., David Bollier, Brand Name Bullies: The Quest to Own and Control Culture (New York: Wiley, 2005).

59. Jessica Litman has an excellent historical account of the NII campaign in her book Digital Copyright (Amherst, NY: Prometheus, 2000).

60. Litman, Digital Copyright, pp. 89–100.

61. Pamela Samuelson, “The Copyright Grab,” Wired, January 1996.

62. Ibid.

63. Litman, Digital Copyright, pp. 144–45.

64. See Wikipedia entry for the Copyright Term Extension Act, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sonny_Bono_Copyright_Term_Extension_Act. See also Eldred v. Ashcroft, 537 U.S. 186 (2003), F. 3d 849 (2001).

65. Interview with Fred von Lohmann, March 20, 2006.

66. 22. John Perry Barlow, “The Economy of Ideas,” Wired, March 1994, at http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/2.03/economy.ideas.html.

67. Ibid.

68. David Lange, “Recognizing the Public Domain,” Law and Contemporary Problems 44 (Autumn 1981).

69. M. William Krasilovsky, “Observations on the Public Domain,” Bulletin of the Copyright Society 14, no. 205 (1967).

70. Edward Samuels, “The Public Domain in Copyright Law,” Journal of the Copyright Society 41, no. 137 (1993), p. 138.

71. Lange, “Recognizing the Public Domain,” p. 162.

72. Jessica Litman, “The Public Domain,” Emory Law Journal 39, no. 965 (Fall 1990).

73. Litman, “The Public Domain,” p. 1012.

74. Martha Woodmansee and Peter Jaszi, eds., The Construction of Authorship: Textual Appropriation in Law and Literature (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1994).

75. Henry Miller writes: “We carry within us so many entities, so many voices, that rare indeed is the man who can say he speaks with his own voice. In the final analysis, is that iota of uniqueness which we boast of as ‘ours’ really ours? Whatever real or unique contribution we make stems from the same inscrutable source whence everything derives. We contribute nothing but our understanding, which is a way of saying — our acceptance.” Miller, The Books in My Life (New York: New Directions), p. 198.

76. Rufus Pollock, “The Value of the Public Domain,” report for Institute for Public Policy Research, London, July 2006, at http://www.rufuspollock.org/economics/papers/value_of_public_domain.ippr.pdf.

77. See James Boyle, Shamans, Software, and Spleens: Law and the Construction of the Information Society (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995), p. 192.

78. James Boyle, “A Theory of Law and Information: Copyright, Spleens, Blackmail and Insider Trading,” California Law Review 80, no. 1413 (1992), at http://www.law.duke.edu/boylesite/law&info.htm.

79. These examples can be found in Bollier, Brand Name Bullies.

80. Interview with Yochai Benkler, February 7, 2006.

81. James Boyle, “A Politics of Intellectual Property: Environmentalism for the Net,” Duke Law Journal 47, no. 1 (October 1997), pp. 87–116, at http://www.law.duke.edu/boylesite/Intprop.htm.

82. Interview with Eric Eldred, August 1, 2006; Daren Fonda, “Copyright Crusader,” Boston Globe Magazine, August 29, 1999, available at http://www.boston.com/globe/magazine/8-29/featurestory1.shtml; and Eric Eldred, “Battle of the Books: The Ebook vs. the Antibook,” November 15, 1998, at http://www.eldritchpress.org/battle.html.

83. Interview with Eric Eldred, August 1, 2006.

84. Ibid.

85. Richard Poynder interview with Lawrence Lessig, “The Basement Interviews: Free Culture,” April 7, 2006, p. 26, available at http://poynder.blogspot.com/2006/03/basement-interviews.html. See also Steven Levy, “Lawrence Lessig’s Supreme Showdown,” Wired, October 2002, pp. 140–45, 154–56, available at http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/10.10/lessig.html. Project Gutenberg is at http://wwwgutenberg.org.

86. Wikipedia entry, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lessig; Levy, “Lawrence Lessig’s Supreme Showdown.”

87. Poynder interview with Lessig, April 7, 2006.

88. Levy, “Lawrence Lessig’s Supreme Showdown.”

89. Lawrence Lessig, “Fidelity in Translation,” Texas Law Review 71, no. 1165 (May 1993).

90. Lawrence Lessig, “Erie-Effects of Volume 110: An Essay on Context in Interpretive Theory,” Harvard Law Review 110, no. 1785 (1997).

91. Ibid., p. 1809.

92. Julian Dibbell, “A Rape in Cyberspace: How an Evil Clown, a Haitian Trickster Spirit, Two Wizards, and a Cast of Dozens Turns a Database into a Society,” Village Voice, December 21, 1993, pp. 36–42, reprinted in Mark Stefik, Internet Dreams: Archetypes, Myths, and Metaphors (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997), pp. 293–315, Dibbell quote at p. 296.

93. Interview with Lawrence Lessig, March 20, 2006.

94. Ibid.

95. Lessig, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace (New York: Basic Books, 1999).

96. Esther Dyson, George Gilder, George Keyworth, and Alvin Toffler, “Cyberspace and the American Dream: A Magna Carta for the Knowledge Age,” Progress and Freedom Foundation, August 1994, available at http://www.pff.org/issues-pubs/futureinsights/fil.2magnacarta.html.

97. David Hudson, interview with Louis Rossetto, “What Kind of Libertarian,” Rewired (Macmillan, 1997), p. 255.

98. Steven Levy, “The Great Liberator,” Wired, October 2002, and Poynder interview with Lessig, April 7, 2006.

99. David Streitfeld, “The Cultural Anarchist vs. the Hollywood Police State,” Los Angeles Times Magazine, September 22, 2002, p. 32.

100. Lawrence Lessig, “Commons Law,” June 24, 1999, posted on www.intellectu alcapital.com/issues/issue251/item5505.asp, and Open Law archive at http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/openlaw.

101. Eldred v. Reno (later, Eldred v. Ashcroft), 537 U.S. 186 (2003), affirming 239 F. 3d 372.

102. Lessig, “How I Lost the Big One,” Legal Affairs, March/April 2004, available at http://www.legalaffairs.org/issues/March-April-2004/story_lessig_marapr04.msp.

103. Lessig interview with Richard Poynder, April 7, 2006, p. 25.

104. “Lawrence Lessig Answers Your Questions,” Slashdot.org, December 21, 2001, Question 1, “The question of harm,” posted by “caduguid,” with Lessig response, available at http://interviews.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=01/12/21/155221.

105. Lessig response to question 11, Slashdot.org, “Will the extension of copyright continue?” posed by “Artifice_Eternity,” available at http://interviews.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=01/12/21/155221.

106. See http://www.supremecourtus.gov/oral_arguments/argument_transcripts/01-618.pdf. See also Lessig, “How I Lost the Big One,” and Linda Greenhouse, “Justices Hear Arguments in Challenge to Copyrights,” New York Times, October 10, 2002. A number of Supreme Court opinions in the Eldred case can be found at the Openlaw archive at http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/openlaw/eldredvreno. The Loyola Los Angeles Law Review held a symposium on Eldred v. Ashcroft, available at http://llr.lls.edu/volumes/v36-issue1.

107. 537 U.S. 186 (1993). See also “Court Majority Says It Won’t Second-Guess Congress,” New York Times, January 16, 2007, p. A22.

108. Stephen Breyer, “The Uneasy Case for Copyright,” Harvard Law Review 84, no. 281 (1970).

109. Siva Vaidhyanathan, “After the Copyright Smackdown: What Next?” Salon, January 17, 2003, at http://www.salon.com/tech/feature/2003/01/17/copyright.print.html.

110. Interview with Poynder, April 7, 2006, p. 25.

111. Lessig, “How I Lost the Big One.” See also Lessig, Free Culture (New York: Penguin, 2004), pp. 228–48.

112. Lessig response to Question 11, “Cyberspace Amendment,” posed by “kzinti,” in Slashdot, available at http://interviews.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=01/12/21/155221.

113. Interview with Poynder, April 7, 2006, pp. 26–27.

114. Garr Reynolds’s blog on professional presentation design, “The ‘Lessig Method’ of Presentation,” October 5, 2005, available at http://presentationzen.blogs.com/presentationzen/2005/10/the_lessig_meth.html.

115. Interview with Aaron Swartz, October 10, 2006.

116. Amy Harmon, “Challenge in Copyright Case May Be Just a Beginning,” New York Times, October 14, 2002.

117. Interview with Eric Eldred, August 1, 2006.

118. Interview with Lawrence Lessig, March 20, 2006.

119. Ibid.

120. Robert S. Boynton, “Righting Copyright: Fair Use and Digital Environmentalism,” Bookforum, February/March 2005, available at http://www.robertboynton.com/articleDisplay.php?article_id=1.

121. See, e.g., D. T. Max, “The Injustice Collector,” New Yorker, June 19, 2006, pp. 34ff.

122. The Copyright’s Commons Web site is now defunct but can be found at the Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine, at http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/cc.

123. Interview with Wendy Seltzer, September 28, 2006.

124. Ross Hanig, “Luring Lessig to Stanford Law School,” Recorder, October 17, 2001, at http://www.law.com.

125. Wikipedia entry, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster.

126. Interview with Jonathan Zittrain, September 28, 2006.

127. Lawrence Lessig, “Proposal for the Intellectual Property Conservancy,” e-mail to ipcommons group, November 12, 2000.

128. Chris Babbitt and Claire Prestel, “Memorandum to Michael Carroll, Wilmer Cutler Pickering, ‘IP Conservancy,’ ” October 24, 2000.

129. E-mail from Richard Stallman to Lessig, September 11, 2000. See also http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html. Stallman suggested calling the project the “Copyright and Patent Conservancy.”

130. E-mail from Hal Abelson to Lessig, September 12, 2000.

131. E-mail from Lawrence Lessig to ipcommons group, September 8, 2000.

132. This case, Stewart v. Abend, 100 S. Ct. 1750 (1990), required the copyright owners of Alfred Hitchcock’s movie Rear Window to pay damages to the author of a book upon which the film was based. Saltzman was concerned that the conservancy would be liable for any illicit derivative works. See Daniel A. Saunders, “Copyright Law’s Broken Rear Window: An Appraisal of Damage and Estimate of Repair,” California Law Review 80, no. 1 (January 1992), pp. 179–245.

133. E-mail to ipcommons group, September 18, 2000.

134. E-mail from Lawrence Lessig to ipcommons group, November 12, 2000.

135. E-mail from Lawrence Lessig to ipcommons group, October 11, 2000, which contained e-mail from Laurie Racine to Lessig, October 25, 2000.

136. E-mail from Lawrence Lessig to ipcommons group, November 12, 2000.

137. http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://Openculture.org.

138. Contained in e-mail from Christina Ritchie to ipcommons group, December 15, 2000.

139. Michael Carroll, “Potential Copyright Liability and DMCA Safe Harbor Relief for Creative Commons,” appendix to “Briefing Book for Creative Commons Inaugural Meeting,” May 7, 2001.

140. E-mail from Eric Saltzman to ipcommons group, January 19, 2001.

141. E-mail from Paul Uhlir and Jerry Reichman, January 30, 2001.

142. E-mails from ipcommons listserv to ipcommons group, January 11, 12, 13, 16, 2001.

143. Dotan Oliar, “Memo on Creative Commons — Towards Formulating a Business Plan,” March 19, 2001.

144. Interview with Chris Babbitt, September 14, 2006.

145. The mock-up can be found at http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/creativecommons/site.htm.

146. “Briefing Book for Creative Commons Inaugural Meeting,” May 7,2001, p.10.

147. Interview with Chris Babbitt, September 14, 2006.

148. Interview with Jonathan Zittrain, September 28, 2006.

149. Oren Bracha and Dotan Oliar, “Memo: May 7th Consensus Regarding the Creative Commons Project,” August 20, 2001, p. 1.

150. Interview with Chris Babbitt, September 14, 2006.

151. Laura Bjorkland, “Regarding Creative Commons: Report from the Creative Community,” in “Briefing Book for Creative Commons Inaugural Meeting,” May 7, 2001, pp. 16–19.

152. Oren Bracha and Dotan Oliar, “Memo: May 7th Consensus Regarding the Creative Commons Project,” August 20, 2001, p. 3, note 9.

153. http://politicalhumor.about.com/od/funnypictures/ig/100-Funny-Pictures/Confusing-Florida-Ballot.htm.

154. E-mail from Michael Carroll to Molly Van Houweling and Larry Lessig, October 15, 2001.

155. Interview with Eric Saltzman, April 11, 2006.

156. “Briefing Book,” p. 12.

157. Ibid.

158. For background, see “The Semantic Web: An Introduction,” at http://infomesh.net/2001/swintro; Aaron Swartz and James Hendler, “The Semantic Web: A Network of Content for the Digital City,” at http://blogspace.com/rdf/SwartzHendler; and John Markoff, “Entrepreneurs See a Web Guided by Common Sense,” New York Times, November 12, 2006.

159. Interview with Lisa Rein, December 20, 2006.

160. Interview with Aaron Swartz, October 10, 2006.

161. Interview with Hal Abelson, April 14, 2007.

162. E-mail from Lawrence Lessig to Hal Abelson, April 22, 2002.

163. Interview with Glenn Otis Brown, June 9, 2006.

164. Oren Bracha and Dotan Oliar, “Memo: Presentation of Two Possible Creative Commons Layer 1 Architectures,” October 1, 2001.

165. Interview with Molly Van Houweling, March 21, 2006.

166. Interview with John Brockland, January 5, 2007.

167. Interview with Molly Van Houweling, March 21, 2006.

168. Interview with Glenn Otis Brown, June 9, 2007.

169. The lawyers also wrestled with a host of imponderables that had no obvious answers, such as: What if people started spoofing the licenses by using them in inappropriate ways? Should the Creative Commons establish a central registry for CC-licensed works as a way to ensure the credibility of the project? (After long debate, the idea was ultimately rejected.) Would the Creative Commons be held liable for contributory negligence if someone used a CC license on a copyrighted song? (The CC took its chances.) Would the Creative Commons lose its trademark if it allowed anyone to use its trademarked logo? (Several lawyers warned that CC licensing of its trademark could not be properly policed.) Glenn Otis Brown worried that the board might be sued for facilitating the unauthorized practice of law. “I don’t know how long I spent calling up different insurance brokers trying to get a quote,” he recalled. “People had no idea what I was talking about. We ended up going all the way to Lloyd’s of London to ask them,” said Brown, laughing. “They wrote back and said, ‘You can’t insure that.’ ”

170. A FAQ at the Creative Commons Web site answers the most frequent user questions about the licenses. It is available at http://wiki.creativecommons.org/.

171. http://creativecommons.org/press-releases/entry/3476.

172. See http://mirrors.creativecommons.org/cc-barlow-valenti.mov.

173. Interview with Glenn Otis Brown, August 10, 2006.

174. Lawrence Lessig, Creative Commons press release, December 19, 2002; “CC in Review: Lawrence Lessig on How It All Began” [weekly e-mail series], October 12, 2005.

175. Interview with Ryan Junell, September 23, 2006.

176. Matthew Haughey, “Blogging in the Public Domain,” Creative Commons blog post, February 5, 2003, at http://creativecommons.org/weblog/entry/3601.

177. Susan Butler, “Movement to Share Creative Works Raises Concerns in Music Circles,” Billboard, May 28, 2005.

178. John C. Dvorak, “Creative Commons Humbug: This Scheme Doesn’t Seem to Benefit the Public,” PC Magazine, July 28, 2005.

179. Researchers at the Economic Observatory of the University of Openness, “Commercial Commons,” on the online journal Metamute, at http://www.metamute.org/?q=en/Commercial-Commons.

180. Nielsen/Net Ratings estimated 585 million Internet users in 2002; the International Telecommunications Union estimated 665 million. See http://www2.sims.berkeley.edu/research/proiects/how-much-info-2003/internet.htm.

181. Yochai Benkler, The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2006), p. 60.

182. Benkler at the iCommons Summit, Dubrovnik, Croatia, June 15, 2007.

183. An excellent overview of these new spaces is Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything (New York: Portfolio, 2006).

184. Robert D. Hof, “The Power of Us: Mass Collaboration on the Internet Is Shaking Up Business,” BusinessWeek, June 20, 2005, pp. 73–82.

185. “The Fortune of the Commons,” Economist, May 8, 2003; Henry Chesbrough, Open Business Models: How to Thrive in the New Innovation Landscape (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 2006).

186. I am indebted to my friend John Clippinger for this insight, as explained in his book A Crowd of One: The Future of Individual Identity (New York: Public Affairs, 2007), chapter 7, “Transforming Trust: Social Commerce in Renaissance Florence,” pp. 97–114.

187. Dan Hunter and F. Gregory Lastowka, “Amateur-to-Amateur,” William and Mary Law Review 46, no. 951 (December 2004).

188. Tim O’Reilly, “What Is Web 2.0: Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software,” O’Reilly Media Web site, September 30, 2005, at http://www.oreilly.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-isweb-20.html.

189. Wikipedia statistics from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:About.

190. David Bollier, “When Push Comes to Pull: The New Economy and Culture of Networking Technology” (Washington, DC: Aspen Institute, 2006), at http://www.aspeninstitute.org/atf/cf/%7BDEB6F227-659B-4EC8-8F84-8DF23CA704F5%7D/2005InfoTechText.pdf.

191. Chris Anderson, “The Long Tail,” Wired, October 2004, at http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/12.10/tail.html.

192. http://www.openprosthetics.org.

193. Rachel Rosmarin, “Why MySpace Blinked,” Forbes, April 24, 2007.

194. Cory Doctorow, “A Note About This Book,” February 12, 2004, and “A Note About This Book,” January 9, 2003, in Down and Out in the Magic Kingdom, available at http://www.craphound.com/down.

195. Anna Weinberg,“Buying the Cow, Though the Milk Is Free: Why Some Publishers are Digitizing Themselves,” June 24, 2005, Book Standard, June 24, 2005, available at http://www.thebookstandard.com/bookstandard/news/publisher/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1000968186.

196. Cory Doctorow, “Giving it Away,” Forbes.com, December 1, 2006, available at http://www.forbes.com/2006/11/30/cory-doctorow-copyright-tech-media_cz_cd_books06_1201doctorow.html.

197. Smaran, “Alchemist Author Pirates His Own Book,” TorrentFreak blog, January 24, 2008, at http://torrentfreak.com/alchemist-author-pirates-own-books080124.

198. Mia Garlick, “LibriVox,” Creative Commons blog, December 5, 2006, at http://creativecommons.org/text/librivox.

199. “Wikitravel Press launches,” Creative Commons blog, August 3, 2007, at http://creativecommons.org/weblog/entry/7596. See also Mia Garlick, “Wikitravel,” Creative Commons blog, June 20, 2006, at http://creativecommons.org/text/wikitravel.

200. Mia Garlick, “Lulu,” Creative Commons blog, May 17, 2006, at http://creativecommons.org/text/lulu.

201. Kevin Kelly, “Scan This Book!” New York Times Magazine, May 14, 2006, p. 43.

202. Ibid., p. 45.

203. Mike Shatzkin, “The End of General Trade Publishing Houses: Death or Rebirth in a Niche-by-Niche World,” presented to the Book Expo America, New York, May 31, 2007, available at http://www.idealog.com/speeches/endoftrade.htm.

204. Cited in David Bollier, The Rise of Collective Intelligence: Decentralized Cocreation of Value as a New Paradigm in Commerce and Culture (Washington, DC: Aspen Institute Communications and Society Program, 2007), p. 27.

205. Matt Haughey, “From LA’s Awesometown to New York City’s SNL,” Wired News, October 1, 2005.

206. Samuli Torssonen presentation at iCommons Summit 2007, Dubrovnik, Croatia, June 15, 2007. See also www.starwreck.com.

207. Ton Roosendaal remarks at conference, “Economies of the Commons,” De Balie Centre for Culture and Politics, Amsterdam, April 10–12, 2008.

208. The film can be downloaded at http://www.bigbuckbunny.org/index.php/download.

209. Mia Garlick, CC blog, at http://creativecommons.org/weblog/entry/6048; see also “Cafuné breaking the limits for open business models,” iCommons blog, at http://www.icommons.org/static/2006/11/22/cafune-breakingthe-limits-for-open-business-models.

210. Harold Feld, “CD Sales Dead? Not for Indies!” blog post on Public Knowledge Web site, March 27, 2007, at http://www.publicknowledge.org/node/890.

211. Donald Clarke, The Rise and Fall of Popular Music, chapter 11.

212. Lessig explained his BMI strategy at a speech, “On Free, and the Differences Between Culture and Code,” at the 23d Chaos Communications Conference (23C3) in Berlin, Germany, December 30, 2006; video can be watched at http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=7661663613180520595&q=23c3.

213. From BMI, Inc., Web site, at http://www.bmi.com/genres/entry/533380.

214. Shapiro described his experiences at the “Identity Mashup Conference,” June 19–21, 2006, hosted by the Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard Law School, at http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/mediaberkman/2006/06/28/id-mashup-2006-day-two-the-commons-open-apis-meshups-and-mashups. His band’s Web site is at http://www.twotonshoe.com.

215. Jon Pareles, “Pay What You Want for This Article,” New York Times, December 9, 2007.

216. Nimrod Lev, “The Combina Industry,” November 16, 2004, at http://law.haifa.ac.il/techlaw/new/try/eng/nimrod.htm.

217. Patti Smith at a panel at the National Conference for Media Reform, St. Louis, sponsored by Free Press, May 14, 2005.

218. A fascinating collision of the Grateful Dead’s sharing ethic and the copyright business model occurred in 2005, when the Internet Archive placed a huge cache of fan recordings online, available for free download. When Grateful Dead Merchandising objected, Deadheads accused the band’s representatives of betraying the band’s long-established sharing ethic. Paradoxically, the band’s merchandisers may also have jeopardized the band’s commercial appeal by prohibiting the downloads. As music critic Jon Pareles put it, “The Dead had created an anarchy of trust, going not by statute but by instinct and turning fans into co-conspirators, spreading their music and buying tickets, T-shirts and official CDs to show their loyalty. The new approach . . . removes what could crassly be called brand value from the Dead’s legacy by reducing them to one more band with products to sell. Will the logic of copyright law be more profitable, in the end, than the logic of sharing? That’s the Dead’s latest improvisational experiment.” Jon Pareles, “The Dead’s Gamble: Free Music for Sale,” New York Times, December 3, 2005.

219. Creative Commons blog, “Musicians Large and Small on Internet Downloading,” by Matt Haughey, July 26, 2004.

220. http://news.bbc.co.uk/l/hi/entertainment/3352667.stm.

221. Joanna Demers, Steal This Music: How Intellectual Property Law Affects Musical Creativity (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2006).

222. This story is told by Demers in Steal This Music. The court ruling is Bridgeport v. Dimension Films, 383 F. 3d 390 (6th Circ. 2004).

223. DJ Danger Mouse’s remix received considerable press attention. A good overview is by Chuck Klosterman, “The DJ Auteur,” New York Times Magazine, June 18, 2006, pp. 40–45.

224. See Negativland’s book, Fair Use: The Story of the Letter U and the Numeral 2 (Concord, CA: Seeland, 1995).

225. Glenn Otis Brown, “Mmm . . . Free Samples (Innovation la),” Creative Commons blog, March 11, 2003, at http://creativecommons.org/weblog/entry/3631.

226. Creative Commons Web site, at http://creativecommons.org/about/sampling. See also Ethan Smith, “Can Copyright Be Saved?” Wall Street Journal, October 20, 2003.

227. See http://wiki.creativecommons.org/ccMixter. Interview with Mike Linksvayer, February 7, 2007, and Neeru Paharia, April 13, 2007.

228. Interview with Neeru Paharia, April 13, 2007.

229. Neeru Paharia, “Opsound’s Sal Randolph,” Creative Commons blog, October 1, 2005, at http://creativecommons.org/audio/opsound; Mike Linksvayer, “Freesound,” Creative Commons blog, October 1, 2005, at http://creativecommons.org/audio/freesound; Matt Haughey, “Free Online Music Booms as SoundClick Offers Creative Commons Licenses,” Creative Commons blog, August 11, 2004.

230. Neeru Paharia, “Minus Kelvin Discovered on ccMixter,” Creative Commons blog, May 17, 2005, at http://creativecommons.org/weblog/archive/2005/5.

231. Cezary Ostrowski from Poland and Marco Raaphorst from Holland met online at ccMixter and decided to go into business together. They started an online label called DiSfish.

232. Mia Garlick, “Classical Music Goes Digital (& CC),” May 3, 2006, at http://creativecommons.org/weblog/entry/5883.

233. The Enderrock Group, a company that specializes in Catalan music and publishes three popular music magazines, released the two CDs, Música Lliure and Música Lliure II, free within the page of its magazines. See Margot Kaminski, “Enderrock,” Creative Commons Web site, January 17, 2007, at http://creativecommons.org/audio/enderrock.

234. The group, Gamelan Nyai Saraswait, was blogged about by Matt Haughey on February 1, 2003, at http://creativecommons.org/weblog/entry/3599.

235. Victor Stone, “DJ Vadim Releases Album Tracks Under CC,” August 20, 2007, at http://creativecommons.org/weblog/entry/7619.

236. Thomas Goetz, “Sample the Future,” Wired, November 2004, pp. 181–83.

237. Glenn Otis Brown, “WIRED Concert and CD: A Study in Collaboration,” September 24, 2004, available at http://creativecommons.org/weblog/entry/4415.

238. See, e.g., Wikipedia entry, “Ghosts I-IV,” at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghosts_I-IV.

239. Gerd Leonhard, “Open Letter to the Independent Music Industry: Music 2.0 and the Future of Music,” July 1, 2007, at http://www.gerdleonhard.net/2007/07/gerd-leonhards.html.

240. Dan Hunter and F. Gregory Lastowka, “Amateur-to-Amateur,” William and Mary Law Review 46, no. 951 (December 2004), pp. 1029–30.

241. Interview with Lawrence Lessig, September 14, 2006.

242. Interview with Glenn Otis Brown, June 9, 2006.

243. Ibid.

244. Lawrence Lessig, Free Culture (New York: Penguin, 2004), pp. 275, 287.

245. CC license statistics, on CC wiki page, at http://wiki.creativecommons.org/License_statistics.

246. Interview with Mike Linksvayer, February 7, 2007.

247. Glenn Otis Brown, “Announcing (and explaining) our new 2.0 licenses,” CC blog, May 25, 2004, at http://creativecommons.org/weblog/entry/4216.

248. 7. Mia Garlick, “Version 3.0 Launched,” CC blog, http://creativecommons.org/weblog/entry/7249.

249. Interview with Glenn Otis Brown, June 9, 2006.

250. Interview with James Boyle, August 15, 2006.

251. The procedures for porting a CC license to another jurisdiction are outlined in a document, “Welcome to Creative Commons International,” undated, at http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Worldwide_Overview.

252. Interview with Jonathan Zittrain, September 28, 2006.

253. The most famous court case involving the CC licenses is A. Curry v. Audax/Weekend, in which Adam Curry sued the publishers of a Dutch tabloid magazine and two senior editors for using four photos of his family on his Flickr account that had been licensed under a BY-NC-SA license. See http://creativecommons.org/weblog/entry/5944 and http://creativecommons.org/weblog/entry/5823. A District Court of Amsterdam upheld Curry’s usage of the CC licenses in a March 9, 2006, decision; see http://mirrors.creativecommons.org/judgements/Curry-Audax-English.pdf. There have been two Spanish cases involving CC licenses. In both cases, a collecting society, the Sociedad General de Autores y Editores (SGAE), sued cafés for playing “free music” licensed under CC licenses; SGAE claimed that it was owed royalties for the public performance of music because artists cannot legally apply a CC license to their work (or even release it online) without the consent of their collecting society. In both instances, the cases turned on evidentiary issues, not on the enforceability of CC licenses. See http://creativecommons.org/weblog/entry/5830 and http://creativecommons.org/weblog/entry/7228.

254. Interview with Yuko Noguchi, September 12, 2007.

255. Wikipedia entry, “Tropicalismo,” at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tropicalismo.

256. For a history of Gil, see his personal Web site at http://www.gilbertogil.com.br/index.php?language=en; the Wikipedia entry on him at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gilberto_Gil; and Larry Rohter, “Gilberto Gil Hears the Future, Some Rights Reserved,” New York Times, March 11, 2007.

257. Julian Dibbell, “We Pledge Allegiance to the Penguin,” Wired, November 2004, at http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/12.11/linux_pr.html.

258. Ibid.

259. E-mail from Hermano Vianna, January 8, 2007.

260. Creative Commons press release, “Brazilian Government First to Adopt New ‘CC-GPL,’ ” December 2, 2003.

261. A ten-minute video of the CC Brazil opening can be seen at http://support.creativecommons.org/videos#brasil.

262. Interview with Glenn Otis Brown, August 10, 2006.

263. Film about CC Brazil launch, at http://support.creativecommons.org/videos#brasil.

264. Interview with Ronaldo Lemos da Silva, September 15, 2006.

265. The tecnobrega scene is described by Ronaldo Lemos in “From Legal Commons to Social Commons: Developing Countries and the Cultural Industry in the 21st Century,” http://icommons.org/banco/from-legal-commons-tosocial-commons-brazil-and-the-cultural-industry-1.

266. Ibid.

267. http://www.ccmixter.co.za.

268. http://www.scielo.br.

269. http://www.portacurtas.comb.br.

270. http://www.overmundo.com.br

271. http://tramavirtual.uol.com.br.

272. Ronaldo Lemos, “From Legal Commons to Social Commons: Developing Countries and the Cultural Industry in the 21st Century,” http://icommons.org/banco/from-legal-commons-to-social-commons-brazil-and-the-culturalindustry-1.

273. Gil remarks at New York University, September 19, 2004, at http://www.nyu.edu/fas/NewsEvents/Events/Minister_Gil_speech.pdf.

274. Ibid.

275. Ibid.

276. Interview with Tomislav Medak, CC Croatia, June 25, 2006.

277. Ibid.

278. Ibid.

279. Interview with Andrés Guadamuz of CC Scotland, December 19, 2006.

280. See http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/help/4527506.stm, and interview with Paula Le Dieu, joint director of the BBC Creative Archive project, May 28, 2004, at http://digital-lifestyles.info/2004/05/28/exclusive-providing-the-fuel-fora-creative-nation-an-interview-with-paula-le-dieu-joint-director-on-the-bbccreative-archive.

281. Intrallect Ltd and AHRC Research Centre for Studies in Intellectual Property and Technology Law, University of Edinburgh, “The Common Information Environment and Creative Commons,” October 10, 2005, at http://www.intrallect.com/index.php/intrallect/content/download/632/2631/file/CIE _CC_Final_Report.pdf.

282. iCommons annual report, 2007, http://www.icommons.org/annual07.

283. Michael Geist, “Push for Open Access to Research, BBC News, February 28, 2007, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/~/2/hi/technology/6404429.

284. Creative Commons blog, Alex Roberts, March 8, 2006, at http://creativecommons.org/text/sip.

285. Interview with Juan Carlos de Martin, CC Italy, July 17, 2007.

286. iCommons ’06 conference booklet, p. 77.

287. Giorgos Cheliotis, Warren Chik, Ankit Guglani, and Girl Kumar Tayi, “Taking Stock of the Creative Commons Experiment: Monitoring the Use of Creative Commons Licenses and Evaluating Its Implications for the Future of Creative Commons and for Copyright Law,” paper presented at 35th Research Conference on Communication, Information and Internet Policy (TPRC), September 28–30, 2007. Paper dated August 15, 2007.

288. Cheliotis, “Taking Stock,” pp. 20–22.

289. The French book is Danièle Bourcier and Mélanie Dulong de Rosnay, eds., International Commons at the Digital Age (Paris: Romillat, 2004), at http://fr.creativecommons.org/icommons_book.htm. The Finnish book is Herkko Hietanen et al., Community Created Content: Law, Business and Policy (Turre Publishing, 2007), at http://www.turre.com/images/stories/books/webkirja_koko_optimoitu2.pdf. The Australian book is Brian Fitzgerald, Open Content Licensing: Cultivating the Creative Commons (Sydney: Sydney University Press, 2007).

290. Creative Commons Netherlands press release, “Buma/Stemra and Creative Commons Netherlands Launch a Pilot,” August 23, 2007; e-mail by Paul Keller, CC Netherlands, to CC International listserv, August 23, 2007.

291. Interview with James P. Love, June 13, 2006.

292. Creative Commons blog, Kathryn Frankel, “Commoners: Architecture for Humanity,” June 30, 2006, at http://creativecommons.org/education/architecture.

293. See Lessig on Creative Commons blog, December 7, 2005, at http://creativecommons.org/weblog/archive/2005/12/page/3.

294. Interview with James Love, June 13, 2006.

295. Creative Commons “retired licenses page,” at http://creativecommons.org/retiredlicenses.

296. Lawrence Lessig, “Retiring standalone DevNations and One Sampling License,” message to CC International listserv, June 4, 2007.

297. Interview with Lawrence Lessig, March 20, 2006.

298. http://icommons.org/isummit05.

299. http://icommons.org/isummit06.

300. iCommons Summit ’06 program.

301. David Berry, “The iCommons Lab Report,” sent to UK FreeCulture listserv, November 9, 2006.

302. Becky Hogge, “What Moves a Movement,” OpenDemocracy.org, June 27, 2006, at www.opendemocracy.net/media-commons/movement_3686.jsp.

303. Ibid.

304. Interview with Lawrence Lessig, October 23, 2007.

305. Ibid.

306. Niva Elkin-Koren, “Exploring Creative Commons: A Skeptical View of a Worthy Pursuit,” chapter XIV in Lucie Guibault and P. Bernt Hugenholtz, editors, The Future of the Public Domain: Identifying the Commons in Information Law (Alphen aan den Rijn, Netherlands: Kluwer Law International BV, 2006).

307. Interview with Yochai Benkler, February 7, 2006.

308. David Berry and Giles Moss, “On the ‘Creative Commons’: A Critique of the Commons without Commonality,” Free Software Magazine, July 15, 2005, at http://www.freesoftwaremagazine.com/articles/commons_without_commonality.

309. Based on Yahoo queries, June 13, 2006, at http://wiki.creativecommons.org/License_Statistics.

310. Eric Muller, “The Case for Free Use: Reasons Not to Use a Creative Commons–NC License,” at http://freedomdefined.org/Licenses/NC.

311. Niva Elkin-Koren, “Exploring Creative Commons: A Skeptical View of a Worthy Pursuit,” chapter 14 in Lucie Guibault and P. Bernt Hugenholtz, editors, The Future of the Public Domain: Identifying the Commons in Information Law (The Netherlands: Kluwer Law International BV, 2006), p. 326.

312. Interview with Niva Elkin-Koren, January 30, 2007.

313. Interview with Lawrence Lessig, October 23, 2007.

314. Richard Stallman, “Fireworks in Montreal,” at http://www.fsf.org/blogs/rms/entry-20050920.html.

315. Benjamin Mako Hill, “Towards a Standard of Freedom: Creative Commons and the Free Software Movement,” Advogato, July 29, 2005, at http://www.advogato.org/article/851.html.

316. Interview with Benjamin Mako Hill, June 1, 2007.

317. Ibid. See also Hill, “Freedom’s Standard Advanced?” Mute, November 23, 2005, at http://www.metamute.org/en/node/5597.

318. Joichi Ito, message on iCommons listserv, June 1, 2007.

319. Interview with Niva Elkin-Koren, January 30, 2007.

320. Wikipedia entry on GNU Free Documentation license, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNU_Free_Documentation_License.

321. Michael Fitzgerald, “Copyleft Hits a Snag,” Technology Review, December 21, 2005.

322. Lessig post to CC International listserv, June 4, 2007. More about the CC’s retired licenses can be seen at http://creativecommons.org/retiredlicenses.

323. Interview with Lawrence Lessig, October 23, 2007.

324. David Berry and Giles Moss, “On the ‘Creative Commons’: A Critique of the Commons Without Commonality,” Free Software Magazine, July 15, 2005, at http://www.freesoftwaremagagine.com/articles/commons_without_commonality

325. Anna Nimus, “Copyright, Copyleft and the Creative Anti-Commons,” at http://subsol.c3.hu/subsol_2/contributors0/nimustext.html.

326. Anupam Chander and Madhavi Sunder, “The Romance of the Public Domain,” California Law Review 92, no. 1131 (2004), p. 1341.

327. Ibid., p. 1343.

328. “A Letter to the Commons, from the participants of the ‘Shades of the Commons Workshop,’ ” in In the Shade of the Commons:Towards a Culture of Open Networks (Amsterdam, Netherlands: Waag Society, 2006), at http://www3.fis.utoronto.ca/research/iprp/cracin/publications/pdfs/final/werbin_InThe Shade.pdf.

329. Center for Social Media, at http://www.centerforsocialmedia.org/fairuse. See also Pat Aufderheide and Peter Jaszi, “Fair Use and Best Practices: Surprising Success,” Intellectual Property Today, October 2007, at http://www.iptoday.com/articles/2007-10-aufderheide.asp; and Peter Jaszi, “Copyright, Fair Use and Motion Pictures,” Utah Law Review 3, no. 715 (2007), and which also appeared in R. Kolker, ed., Oxford Handbook of Film and Media Studies (2007), at http://www.centerforsocialmedia.org/files/pdf/fairuse_motionpictures.pdf.

330. Aufderheide and Jaszi, Intellectual Property Today, October 2007, at http://www.iptoday.com/articles/2007-10-aufderheide.asp.

331. Interview with Lawrence Lessig, October 23, 2007.

332. Interview with Yochai Benkler, February 7, 2006.

333. Cory Doctorow, iCommons listserv [thread, “Andrew Orlowski Attacks Lessig], June 1, 2007.

334. John Buckman presentation at iCommons Summit, Dubrovnik, Croatia, June 15, 2007.

335. John Buckman entry in Wikipedia, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Buckman.

336. John Buckman at Magnatune home page, at http://www.magnatune.com/info/why.

337. John Buckman, interview with Matthew Magee of Out-Law.com, radio podcast, September 13, 2007, at http://www.out-law.com/page-8468.

338. John Buckman at iCommons, June 15, 2007. For an extensive profile of Buckman and Magnatune, see http://www.openrightsgroup.org/creativebusiness/index.php/John_Buckman:_Magnatune.

339. John Buckman, interview with Matthew Magee, September 13, 2007.

340. See,e.g., Walter S.Mossberg, “Free My Phone,” Wall Street Journal, October 22, 2007, p. R1.

341. Steve Lohr, “Free the Avatars,” New York Times, October 15, 2007.

342. See Elliot E. Maxwell, “Open Standards, Open Source, and Open Innovation: Harnessing the Benefits of Openness,” Innovations:Technology, Governance, Globalization 1, no. 3 (Summer 2006), at http://www.emaxwell.net.

343. Eric Raymond, “The Cathedral and the Bazaar,” May 1997, at http://www.catb.org/~esr/writings/cathedral-bazaar. The essay has been translated into nineteen languages to date.

344. Yochai Benkler, “Coase’s Penguin, or, Linux and the Nature of the Firm,” Yale Law Journal 112, no. 369 (2002), at http://www.benkler.org/CoasesPenguin.html.

345. Richard Pérez-Peña, “Times to Stop Charging for Parts of Its Web Site,” New York Times, September 18, 2007.

346. Frank Ahrens, “Web Sites, Tear Down That Wall,” Washington Post, November 16, 2007, p. D1. See also Farhad Manjoo, “The Wall Street Journal’s Website Is Already (Secretly) Free,” Salon, March 21, 2008, at http://machinist.salon.com/blog/2008/03/21/wsj/index.html.

347. David P. Reed, “The Sneaky Exponential — Beyond Metcalfe’s Law to the Power of Community Building,” at http://www.reed.com/Papers/GFN/reedslaw.html.

348. See, e.g., Paula Lehman, “MySpace Plays Chicken with Users,” BusinessWeek Online, April 12, 2007.

349. Henry Chesbrough, Open Business Models: How to Thrive in the New Innovation Landscape (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 2006).

350. http://www.openbusiness.org.

351. From blog of Professor Karim Lakhani, Harvard Business School, April 27, 2007.

352. Joe Wilcox and Stephen Shankland, “Why Microsoft is wary of open source,” CNET, June 18, 2001; and Lea, Graham, “MS’ Ballmer: Linux is communism,” Register (U.K.), July 31, 2000.

353. Yochai Benkler, The Wealth of Networks (Yale University Press, 2006), Figure 2.1 on p. 47.

354. “Open Source: Now It’s an Ecosystem,” BusinessWeek Online, October 3, 2005.

355. Microsoft’s Shared Source Licenses, at http://www.microsoft.com/resources/sharedsource/licensingbasics/sharedsourcelicenses.mspx; see also Lessig blog, “Microsoft Releases Under ShareAlike,” June 24, 2005, at http://lessig.org/blog/2005/06/microsoft_releases_under_share.html.

356. Vauhini Vara, “Facebook Gets Help from Its Friends,” Wall Street Journal, June 22, 2007. See also Riva Richmond, “Why So Many Want to Create Facebook Applications,” Wall Street Journal, September 4, 2007.

357. Joshua Davis, “The Secret World of Lonelygirl,” Wired, December 2006, at http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/14.12/lonelygirl.html.

358. Elizabeth Holmes, “Famous, Online,” Wall Street Journal, August 8, 2006.

359. Revver entry at Wikipedia, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revver.

360. Interview with Steven Starr, “Is Web TV a Threat to TV?” Wall Street Journal, August 7, 2007, at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB118530221391976425.html.

361. Lessig blog post, “The Ethics of Web 2.0,” October 20, 2006, at http://www.lessig.org/blog/archives/003570.shtml.

362. Nicholas G. Carr, “Web 2.0lier than Thou,” Rough Type blog, October 23, 2006. Joichi Ito has a thoughtful response in his blog, “Is YouTube Web 2.0?” October 22, 2006, at http://joi.ito.com/archives/2006/10/22/is_youtube_web_20.html; and Lessig responded to Carr in his blog, at http://lessig.org/blog/2006/10/stuck_in_the_20th_century_or_t.html. The “communism discourse” persists, and not just among critics of free culture. Lawrence Liang of CC India used this epigraph in a book on open-content licenses: “There is a specter haunting cultural production, the specter of open content licensing.” which he attributes to “Karl Marx (reworked for the digital era).” From Liang, Guide to Open Content Licenses (Rotterdam, Netherlands: Piet Zwart Institute, Institute for Postgraduate Studies and Research, Willem de Kooning Academy Hogeschool, 2004).

363. Interview with Ronaldo Lemos, September 15, 2006.

364. Ronaldo Lemos, “From Legal Commons to Social Commons: Developing Countries and the Cultural Industry in the 21st Century,” 2006, at http://www.icommons.org/resources/from-legal-commons-to-social-commons-brazil-and-the-cultural-industry-1. See Paula Martini post on iCommons blog, “Over the Top: The New (and Bigger) Cultural Industry in Brazil,” September 28, 2007, at http://www.icommons.org/articles/over-the-top-thenew-and-bigger-cultural-industry-in-brazil.

365. Ibid.

366. Interview with Ronaldo Lemos, November 6, 2006.

367. Sylvain Zimmer of Jamendo, presentation at iCommons Summit, Dubrovnik, Croatia, June 15, 2007.

368. Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything (New York Portfolio, 2006), chapter 5, “The Prosumers.”

369. David Bollier, The Rise of Collective Intelligence: Decentralized Co-creation of Value as a New Paradigm of Commerce and Culture (Washington, DC: Aspen Institute Communications and Society Program, 2008).

370. Elliot Maxwell, “Open Standards, Open Source, and Open Innovation: Harnessing the Benefits of Openness,” Innovations:Technology, Governance, Globalization 1, no. 3 (Summer 2006), at http://www.emaxwell.net, p. 150.

371. Elliot E. Maxwell drew my attention to these examples in his excellent essay “Open Standards, Open Source, and Open Innovation.”

372. Wikipedia entry, IMDB, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Movie_Database.

373. Wikipedia entry, CDDB, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CDDB.

374. Eric von Hippel, Democratizing Innovation (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005), available at http://mitpress.mit.edu/democratizing_innovation_pdf.

375. Ibid., p. 1

376. Tapscott and Williams, Wikinomics, pp. 130–31.

377. Brendan I. Koerner, “Geeks in Toyland,” Wired, February 2006.

378. Karim R. Lakhani and Jill A. Panetta, “The Principles of Distributed Innovation,” Research Publication No. 2007-7, Berkman Center for Internet & Society, Harvard Law School, October 2007, at http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract_id=1021034. See also Darren Dahl, “Nice Threads,” Southwest Airlines Spirit, December 2006.

379. Evan Prodromou presentation, “Commercialization of Wikis: Open Community that Pays the Bills,” South by Southwest Interactive conference, March 10, 2007.

380. William J. Bulkeley, “Got a Better Letter Opener?” Wall Street Journal, July 13, 2006.

381. http://www.sellaband.com.

382. William Booth, “His Fans Greenlight the Project,” Washington Post, August 20, 2006.

383. Derek Lowe, “Neat! Wish It Were True!” In the Pipeline [blog], November 29, 2007, at http://pipeline.corante.com. See also, Donna Wentworth, “Why We Need to Figure Out What We Already Know,” Science Commons blog, January 4, 2008, at http://sciencecommons.org/weblog/archives/2008/01/04/why-we-need-to-figure-out-what-we-already-know.

384. James Boyle, “The Irony of a Web Without Science,” Financial Times, September 4, 2007, at http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/39166e30-5a7f-11dc-9bcd0000779fd2ac.html.

385. John Wilbanks, director of the Science Commons, introduced me to this term.

386. See, e.g., Jennifer Washburn, University Inc.: The Corporate Corruption of Higher Education (New York: Basic Books, 2005); Derek Bok, Universities in the Marketplace: The Commercialization of Higher Education (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003); Sheldon Krimsky, Science in the Private Interest: Has the Lure of Profits Corrupted Biomedical Research (New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003); and Corynne McSherry, Who Owns Academic Work? Battling for Control of Intellectual Property (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001).

387. John Seely Brown and Paul Duguid, The Social Life of Information (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Pulishing, 2000). See also, e.g., Jane E. Fountain, “Social Capital: Its Relationship to Innovation in Science and Technology,” Science and Public Policy 25, no. 2 (April 1998), pp. 103–15.

388. Committee for Economic Development, Harnessing Openness to Transform American Health Care (Washington, DC: CED, 2008).

389. See, e.g., Rockefeller Foundation, “2005 Bellagio Meeting on Open Source Models of Collaborative Innovation in the Life Sciences” [report], Bellagio, Italy, September 2005. See also Janet Elizabeth Hope, “Open Source Biotechnology,” Ph.D. diss., Australian National University, December 2004.

390. Interview with Richard Jefferson, September 7, 2006. See also http://www.cambia.org.

391. Robert Merton, “Science and Democratic Social Structure,” in Social Theory and Social Structure, 3d ed. (New York: Free Press, 1968), pp. 604–15.

392. Richard R. Nelson, “The Market Economy and the Scientific Commons,” Research Policy 33, no. 3 (April 2004), pp. 455–71. See also Karim R. Lakhani et al., “The Value of Openness in Scientific Problem Solving,” Harvard Business School Working Paper 07-050, January 2007, at http://www.hbs.edu/research/pdf/07-050.pdf.

393. Robert Merges, “Property Rights Theory and the Commons: The Case of Scientific Research,” Social Philosophy and Policy 13, no. 2 (Summer 1996), pp. 145–61.

394. John Willinsky, “The Unacknowledged Convergence of Open Source, Open Access and Open Science,” First Monday 10, no. 8 (August 2005), at http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue10_8/willinsky/index.html.

395. Interview with James Boyle, August 15, 2006.

396. Jean-Claude Guédon, “In Oldenburg’s Long Shadow: Librarians, Research Scientists, Publishers and the Control of Scientific Publishing,” at http://www.arl.org/resources/pubs/mmproceedings/138guedon.shtml.

397. http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/fosblog.html.

398. Willinsky, “The Unacknowledged Convergence.”

399. Interview with Peter Suber, June 28, 2006.

400. Association of Research Libraries, ARL Statistics 2005–06, at http://www.arl.org/stats/annualsurveys/ar/stats/arlstats06.shtml.

401. Peter Suber, “Creating an Intellectual Commons through Open Access,” in Charlotte Hess and Elinor Ostrom, eds., Understanding Knowledge as a Commons: From Theory to Practice (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007), p. 175.

402. Association of Research Libraries, “Tempe Principles for Emerging Systems of Scholarly Publishing,” May 10, 2000, at http://www.arl.org/resources/pubs/tempe/index.shtml.

403. http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/timeline.htm.

404. The Budapest Open Access Initiative can be found at http://www.soros.org/openaccess.

405. http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/overview.htm.

406. Peter Suber has an excellent account of the final OA legislation in SPARC Open Access Newsletter, no. 17, January 2, 2008, at http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/newsletter/01-02-08.htm.

407. Science Commons brochure [undated].

408. Science Commons, “Scholar’s Copyright Project — Background Briefing,” at http://sciencecommons.org/literature/scholars_copyright.html.

409. Interview with John Wilbanks, November 19, 2007.

410. Patricia Cohen, “At Harvard, a Proposal to Publish Free on the Web,” New York Times, February 12, 2008. See also Peter Suber’s coverage of the decision in Open Access News, at http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/2008/02/moreon-imminent-oa-mandate-at-harvard.html, and subsequent days.

411. Donna Wentworth blog post, “Ensuring the freedom to integrate — why we need an ‘open data’ protocol,” Science Commons blog, December 20, 2007, at http://sciencecommons.org/weblog/archives/2007/12/20/ensuring-thefreedom-to-integrate.

412. National Research Council, A Question of Balance: Private Rights and the Public Interest in Scientific and Technical Databases (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999), p. 14.

413. John Sulston and Georgina Ferry, The Common Threat: A Story of Science, Politics, Ethics and the Human Genome (Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press, 2002), pp. 212–13.

414. http://www.hapmap.org.

415. Andrés Guadamuz González, “Open Science: Open Source Licenses in Scientific Research,” North Carolina Journal of Law & Technology 7, no. 2 (Spring 2006), pp. 349–50.

416. http://www.hapmap.org/guidelines_hapmap_data.html.en.

417. Interview with John Wilbanks, November 19, 2007.

418. Ibid.

419. Moody and Singh quotations from Donna Wentworth, Science Commons blog post, December 20, 2007.

420. Brian Athey, University of Michigan, presentation at Commons of Science conference, National Academy of Science, Washington, DC, October 3, 2006.

421. Stevan Harnad, “Maximizing Research Impact Through Institutional and National Open-Access Self-Archiving Mandates,” Electronics & Computer Science E-Prints Repository, May 2006, available at http://eprints.ecs.soron.ac.uk/12093/02/harnad-crisrey.pdf.

422. Interview with Michael Carroll, August 7, 2006.

423. Thinh Nguyen, “Science Commons: Material Transfer Agreement Project,” Innovations, Summer 2007, pp. 137–43, at http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1162/itgg.2007.2.3.137.

424. Ibid.

425. Interview with Richard Baraniuk, January 21, 2008.

426. Rice University Press homepage, at http://www.ricepress.rice.edu.

427. http://cccoer.pbwiki.com.

428. MIT press release, “MIT to make nearly all course materials available free on the World Wide Web,” April 4, 2001.

429. Carey Goldberg, “Auditing Classes at M.I.T., on the Web and Free,” New York Times, April 4, 2001, p. 1.

430. Interview with Hal Abelson, “OpenCourseWare and the Mission of MIT,” Academe, September/October 2002, pp. 25–26.

431. David Diamond, “MIT Everyware,” Wired, September 2003.

432. Daniel E. Atkins, John Seely Brown, and Allen L. Hammond, “A Review of the Open Educational Resources (OER) Movement: Achievements, Challenges and New Opportunities,” February 2007, at http://www.oerderves.org/wp-content/uploads/2007/03/a-review-of-the-open-educational-re sources-oer-movement_final.pdf, p. 23.

433. OpenCourseWare Consortium, at http://www.ocwconsortium.org.

434. Ibid.

435. See, e.g., John Markoff, “For $150, Third-World Laptop Stirs a Big Debate,” New York Times, November 30, 2006.

436. J. Philipp Schmidt and Mark Surman, “Open Sourcing Education: Learning and Wisdom from the iSummit 2007,” September 2, 2007, at http://icommons.org/download_banco/open-sourcing-education-learning-and-wisdom-from-isummit-2007.

437. http://www.capetowndeclaration.org. Schmidt and Surman, “Open Sourcing Education.”

438. For a nice overview of these policy contests, see Yochai Benkler, The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2006), chapter 11, “The Battle Over the Institutional Ecology of the Digital Environment,” pp. 383–459.

439. Shanthi Kalathil and Taylor C. Boas, Open Networks, Closed Regimes: The Impact of the Internet on Authoritarian Rule (Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2003).

440. David Bollier, The Rise of Netpolitik: How the Internet Is Changing International Politics and Diplomacy (Washington, DC: Aspen Institute Communications and Society Program, 2003).

441. David R. Johnson, “The Life of the Law Online,” First Monday 11, no. 2 (February 2006), at http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue11_2/johnson/index.html.

442. Michael Schudson, The Good Citizen: A History of American Civic Life (New York: Free Press, 1998), dust jacket.

443. Ibid., p. 310.

444. I am inspired in this choice of terms by Charles Spinosa, Frnando Flores, and Hubert L. Dreyfus in their book, Disclosing New Worlds: Entrepreneurship, Democratic Action, and the Cultivation of Solidarity (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997).

445. See, e.g.,Yochai Benkler, The Wealth of Networks, pp. 225–32.

446. Jonah Bossewitch, “The Zyprexa Kills Campaign: Peer Production and the Frontiers of Radical Pedagogy,” Re-public, at http://www.re-public.gr/en/?p=144.

447. Joichi Ito, “Emergent Democracy,” chapter 1 in John Lebkowsky and Mitch Ratcliffe, eds., Extreme Democracy (Durham, NC: Lulu.com, 2005), at http://extremedemocracy.com/chapters/Chapter%20One-Ito.pdf.

448. Adam Liptak, “Verizon Reverses Itself on Abortion Messages,” New York Times, September 27, 2007, at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/27/business/27cnd-verizon.html.

449. Johnson, “The Life of the Law Online.”

450. Robert Mackey, “Conservapedia: The Word Says it All,” New York Times, March 8, 2007, at http://thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/03/08/conservapedia-the-word-says-it-all/?scp=1&sq=wales+conservapedia.

451. E. Gabriella Coleman, “The Political Agnosticism of Free and Open Source Software and the Inadvertent Politics of Contrast,” Anthropology Quarterly 77, no. 3 (Summer 2004), pp. 507–19. See also her Ph.D. dissertation, “The Social Construction of Freedom in Free and Open Source Software: Hackers, Ethics and the Liberal Tradition,” abstract at http://healthhacker.org/biella/coleman-abstract.pdf.

452. Johan Söderberg, Hacking Capitalism: The Free and Open Source Software Movement (New York: Routledge, 2007).

453. Geert Lovink, “Theses on Wiki Politics,” an exchange with Pavlos Hatzopoulos, Re-public, at http://www.re-public.gr/en/?p=135.

454. Robert Ellickson, Order Without Law: How Neighbors Settle Disputes (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005).

455. Bruno Latour, “We Are All Reactionaries Today,” Re-public, at http://www.republic.gr/en/?p=129.

456. John Seely Brown, personal communication, January 26, 2008.

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